Maybe a little different slant on all this:
What is a language? To be ridiculously simple, it's vocabulary, syntax, and semantics.
What's the first thing you do with a programming language?
You define things - classes, variables, methods - you extend the vocabulary and the semantics.
Why? So now you can say things in it you could not say before.
Like it or not, you've made a new special-purpose language.
IMHO, the thing to look for in a general-purpose language is if it makes it easy to create special-purpose languages.