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Maybe a little different slant on all this:

What is a language? To be ridiculously simple, it's vocabulary, syntax, and semantics.

What's the first thing you do with a programming language?
You define things - classes, variables, methods - you extend the vocabulary and the semantics.

Why? So now you can say things in it you could not say before.
Like it or not, you've made a new special-purpose language.

IMHO, the thing to look for in a general-purpose language is if it makes it easy to create special-purpose languages.

    Post Made Community Wiki by Mike Dunlavey