Let's take the following (JavaScript) code that returns a function that closes over variables x and y to illustrate:

function test() {
  var x = Math.random();
  var y = Math.random();
  var f = function() { 
    console.log(x, y); 

  return f;

The code is nonsensical, I just want to close over x and y.

Variables x and y don't exist outside of the function test but they remain available in the function f.

Barring any compiler optimizations (like inlining), do we say there is a single closure (created by f), or do we say there are two closures (for/over x and y)?

  • single is the correct answer.
    – Ingo
    Commented Jan 21, 2012 at 10:54
  • 2
    From the Closure article on Wikipedia (emphasis mine): "a closure [...] is a function together with a referencing environment for the non-local variables of that function". To answer your question: it's a single closure created by f. Commented Jan 21, 2012 at 11:14

2 Answers 2


"A closure" is a function that closes over one or more variables, not the variable(s) that are closed over. So it's a single closure.


A closure is a first class function that captures the lexical bindings of variables defined in it's environment. When it captures the bindings it is said to have "closed over" the variables.

Note: this means closures only exist at runtime (once it has "closed over" variables).

So in the example above a single closure is created when the code is executed. This closure is "closed over" the variables x and y.

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