Pascal was the direct predecessor to C for a large number of purposes. C did "unify" things a bit though. Before C, you often had to choose between Pascal, assembly language, or FORTRAN based on the capabilities you needed. C largely (but not completely) replaced all three. You often wanted to use Pascal, but couldn't. You grudgingly chose FORTRAN for performance, or assembly language for low-level access.
FORTRAN still had (and has) better performance than C, and assembly language still has more low level access -- but for many purposes, what C provided was enough.
Edit: I suppose I should add (as alluded to by Keith Thompson) Pascal doesn't really predate the creation of C by enough to notice. Pascal did, however, become widely pervasive relatively quickly. In the late '70s and early '80s, most typical hackers were at least vaguely aware of the existence of C, but only a relatively small number really used it.
During the CP/M days, for example, I can recall having a choice of a half dozen (or so) Pascal compilers: Microsoft Pascal, Pascal/S, Pascal/MT+, JRT Pascal, etc. Only toward the very end of CP/M, and into the early use of the IBM PC did C compilers start to become an option -- and even then, you choices were extremely limited. The first two I remember were BDS C and Whitesmith's C. BDS seemed to work well, but was limited enough that most "real C" programs wouldn't port to it. Whitesmiths also had some idiosyncrasies, was so expensive most people couldn't afford it, and so large that you typically had to swap floppy disks a half dozen (or so) times to compile even the simplest piece of code. A non-toy program could easily take several minutes to build, requiring operator intervention the entire time. The other option of the time was Micro-C, which (as you can guess from the name) was stripped down to the point that it took quite a bit of work to port to it -- not to mention the fact that if you wanted to run it on CP/M, you have to get the source code from Dr. Dobbs (printed), typed into your system, and then port it to CP/M on your own.
By contrast, Turbo Pascal became available around 1981 or '2 (if memory serves). It compiled in-memory, so small programs could compile and start to execute essentially instantly, even on a 1 MHz processor. The earlier Pascal compilers weren't that fast, but still a lot more reasonable than any C compiler of the time.
At least for people outside universities, C only started to become a reasonable choice around the mid-1980's or so. Early on you have Mark Williams, Datalight, and so on -- lots of companies that are long gone now. Then Borland came out with Turbo C, Microsoft answered with Quick C, and programmers could (and did) debate endlessly about the relative merits of a dozen different compilers.