The only currently used written programming language I can think up off the top of my head is HTML. Now depending on your definition of programming language, this may or may not count.
To help you understand why there is not a lot of high usage programming languages that have less positional syntax you have to understand how most programming languages are designed.
Most programming languages are based on unambiguous grammars, mostly by the use of LL and LR grammars. In order to keep the grammars unambiguous most of the technology relies on using the ordering of the symbols and words, e.g. terminals, to make the input unambiguous. What you are looking for are languages that give up position to make the grammar unambiguous. If the compilers cannot use position to decide if the grammar is unambiguous, then the compiler needs some other hints to make the grammar unambiguous, thus prefixes such as #, %, ' and ". Another technique is to associate keywords with each value, i.e. width=10, which is what HTML does. If you create a grammar that does not use LL and LR grammars, then you have to use a different technology to resolve ambiguities which typically use backtracking which requires a large amount of computer processing to resolve the ambiguities.
Declarative languages are closest in general that I know of such as PROLOG and SQL, but again require the use of some positional values.
The only other languages that come to mind are spoken language into AI systems that process the input such as Watson, but again, do you consider this a programming language; if you consider SQL a programming language, then why not a verbal query for Watson.