Yes, you can build Android apps in most (all?) of the languages that can compile down to byte code (JRuby, Scala, Clojure, ...), but the performance is not what you are used to on the Java VM. Dalvik is a different beast, and the various implementations have had to do quite a bit of changes to come up with a decent speed.
Clojure is now quite performant on Android (after 5 years), but is still suffering from the same slow startup times as the other scripted languages (like JRuby). Lean Clojure is doing something about this, though.
A commenter mentioned F#, and that is actually a viable option, but a costly one if you are a single developer. The reason being that this usually means developing using Tamarin Studio, a great, but proprietary IDE that compiles .NET apps into native versions for Android and iOS.