I mean is there some open sourced projects that were started as closed source and were commercially successful also? I am also interested in any story behind open sourcing them.
Some "Formerly Commercial-Only" Projects
- The IntelliJ IDE was originally closed-source
- A lot of Id Software games, old (like Wolfenstein 3D) and not so old (like Doom 3)
- A lot of projects released as open-source by Sun Microsystems started as closed-source experiments or products:
- the JDK and JRE themselves,
- NetBeans (interesting crossing history lines between the Forte For Java and NetBeans names)
- The Star Office suite (later to be super-seded by Open Office, and now forked as Libre Office)
- The source of (some versions and some parts of) the Microsoft Windows kernel is actually available for educational purposes and partners.
- ... and find many more just by using a search on a service like Google News
"Non-Commercial" / Internal Projects
There were also some non-commercial internal projects (used by a company or a group of companies, but not released to the general public) which got open-sourced after their end of life or after a while. For instance, NASA has been known to release a few things.
- Some projects finally publish their source, but do not necessarily make it available under a copyleft or Free Software license.
- Some projects are commercial but do publish their source to selected groups of people: in general universities, or partner enterprises. Depending on the licensing terms, you could argue this as being open-source.
Qt was originally a commercial project by Trolltech, then when they were bought by Nokia it was released as a dual (commercial/LGPL) project.
The value to Nokia of having it as the default GUI toolkit of programmers all over the world was more valuable than the extra license fees from a few commercial customers ( or it would have been if Nokia could project manage their way out of a paperbag)
Here you are the TOP list - 63 Top Commercial Open Source Projects
Even a better post to look at the trend in Community-driven Open Source Projects Become More Marketing Savvy
Java, it's a GPL project for the biggest part ( some minor pieces of code can have a different license ) since 2007
Gish, Penumbra, Lugaru and Aquaria were open-sourced following the success of the first Humble Bundle promotion.
IIRC, Sun's Glassfish server was originally the Sun Java System Application Server, which was originally the SunONE Application Server, which started out as the iPlanet Application Server, which had been created by merging the code bases of the Netscape Enterprise Server and the NetDynamics Application Server.
Likewise, the EclipseLink project started out as a Smalltalk product (TopLink) which was ported to Java and eventually donated to Sun to be used as part of the Glassfish project, before finally finding its way to the Eclipse project.