No design patterns are necessary. In any language.
I tend to come across a lot of code written by people who read up on design patterns and then think they should use them all over the place. The result is that the actual code gets buried under tons of interfaces, wrappers and layers and is pretty hard to read. That's a wrong approach to design patterns.
Design patterns exist so that you have a repertoire of useful idioms handy when you come across a problem. But you should never apply any pattern before you identify the problem. Keep It Simple Stupid should always be the superior governing principle.
It also helps to think of design patterns as a concept to think about the problem rather than specific boilerplate code to write. And about much of the boilerplate as workaround to Java lacking free functions and standard function objects that you use in most other languages that have them (like Python, C#, C++ etc).
I might say that I have a visitor pattern, but in any language with first class functions it will be just a function taking a function. Instead of factory class I usually have just a factory function. I might say I have an interface, but then it's just a couple of methods marked with comments, because there wouldn't be any other implementation (of course in python an interface is always just comments, because it's duck-typed). I still speak of the code as using the pattern, because it's a useful way to think about it, but don't actually type in all the stuff until I really need it.
So learn all the patterns as concepts. And forget the specific implementations. The implementation varies, and should vary, in the real world, even just in Java.