We are often told that the hardware doesn't care what language a program is written in as it only sees the compiled binary code, however this is not the whole truth. For example, consider the humble Z80; its extensions to the 8080 instruction set include instructions like CPIR which is useful for scanning C-style (NULL-terminated) strings, e.g. to perform
strlen(). The designers must have identified that running C programs (as opposed to Pascal, where the length of a string is in the header) was something that their design was likely to be used for. Another classic example is the Lisp Machine.
What other examples are there? E.g. instructions, number and type of registers, addressing modes, that make a particular processor favour the conventions of a particular language? I am particularly interested in revisions of the same family.