My professional experience is limited to a few small companies with small development teams. So take this comment for what it's worth from my own perspective.
Regardless of how you perceive the relevance of your resume, the fact is that it is still highly relevant in the workplace. HR recruiters aren't the only ones who will screen your resume. In our teams, our Lead and Senior developers (usually 1 or 2), in addition to our managers are offered the chance to screen your resume and offer an opinion on whether or not they feel they want to talk to you.
That's the key point. We're not evaluating your expertise at this point. We're trying to figure out if you've done similar things to what we're doing. We're trying to figure out how you communicate those achievements and whether or not you thought they were important to you.
Reviewing your code on GitHub, your reputation and answers on StackOverflow, and other online resources is the equivalent of a research project to me. While this definitely answers questions I might have about your techincal abilities, I just don't have the time to go reading other people's code. I've already got deadlines to meet.
I could spend 5-10 minutes looking over your resume and highlighting the things that are interesting to me. Or I could spend up to an hour trying to summarize myself what I think your qualifications are. And if I have to summarize you, that means that I likely won't accurately represent you to my superiors or my team. It'll be your word against mine about who you are and what you're capable of.
You wouldn't want me judging your work by a single item in your online portfolio, right? That wouldn't be fair to you. But that's usually the amount of time I have in my professional day to make a decision on whether or not we just want to talk to you. So be fair and considerate of my time by summarizing what you think are your best selling points. If I have to go hunt them down myself, you've already raised red flags in my point of view.
Not submitting a resume immediately tells me you don't care enough about the hiring process to put in a minimal amount of work. Why would I consider hiring you if the projects I have in store for my new hire are a considerable load of additional work?