Node.js is exactly what you're asking for ... and more.
As mentioned by Joachim, node.js is exactly what you ask for.
It's also possible to embed this into a windows application using the WScript.Shell ActiveX/COM object.
In addition to node.js, there is also gjs, which is a GNOME-oriented runtime giving access to GNOME, GTK, and GLib libraries, among others. I believe you can use with it any library that supports GObject introspection.
Gjs is used widely in the GNOME3 desktop.
Personally, I think you're much better off with node.js as that is awesome. For a quick introduction, you can do much much worse than read the (free) NodeBeginner book.