For example if I have code that contains parts of code rewritten from code found here or on Stack Overflow or other Creative-Commons licensed code, can my final code be licensed with an Apache License?
You should read and understand any license that you agree to. CC licenses, like CC-BY-SA-3.0, explicitly state:
You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the terms of: (i) this License; (ii) a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License; (iii) a Creative Commons jurisdiction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g., Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 US)); (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible License.
There are currently no approved compatible licenses.
IANAL, but it seems to me that you cannot sublicense CC content under the Apache license.