Importing the module doesn't waste anything; the module is always fully imported (into the
sys.modules mapping), so whether you use
import sys or
from sys import argv makes no odds.
The only difference between the two statements is what name is bound;
import sys binds the name
sys to the module (so
from sys import argv binds a different name,
argv, pointing straight at the attribute contained inside of the module (so
sys.modules['sys'].argv). The rest of the
sys module is still there, whether you use anything else from the module or not.
There is also no performance difference between the two approaches. Yes,
sys.argv has to look up two things; it has to look up
sys in your global namespace (finds the module), then look up the attribute
argv. And yes, by using
from sys import argv you can skip the attribute lookup, since you already have a direct reference to the attribute. But the
import statement still has to do that work, it looks up the same attribute when importing, and you'll only ever need to use
argv once. If you had to use
argv thousands of times in a loop, it could perhaps make a difference, but in this specific case it really does not.
Hence, the choice between one or the other should be based solely on coding style.
In a large module, I'd certainly use
import sys; code documentation matters, and using
sys.argv somewhere in a large module makes it much clearer what you are referring to than just
argv ever would.
If the only place you use
argv is in a
'__main__' block to call a
main() function, by all means use
from sys import argv if you feel happier about that:
if __name__ == '__main__':
from sys import argv
I'd still use
import sys there myself. All things being equal (and they are, exactly, in terms of performance and number of characters used to write it), that is just easier on the eye for me.
If you are importing something else altogether, then perhaps performance comes into play. But only if you use a specific name in a module many times over, in a critical loop for example. But then creating a local name (within a function) is going to be faster still:
localname = somemodule.somefunctionorother
# huge, critical loop
foo = localname(bar)
from … import …syntax in Python