All Languages Support All Kinds of Testing
The way you formulated your original question, I think you were approaching testing the wrong way and make too big a distinction between kinds of progammers and their roles, and making assumptions on the link between a language and the testing taught.
All languages allow for all kinds of testing. They may have built a more in-grained culture around testing, and may provide more tooling, and have some language features that facilitate it. And it's true that if you were to conduct a literature review, mainstream books about testing may have been appearing around Java's introduction and rise to fame, and relying on it to illustrate their points.
But all languages allow for testing of all kinds.
What's Your Responsibility?
So, now, to try to answer your original questions:
What other testing does a Java Developer do from a Java Developer's Perspective?
As I have already mentioned every Java Developer carrys out Unit Testing.
From the 1's I have described above, which 1's are done from a Java Developer's Perspective?
All the ones you've listed afterwards in your answer:
- Unit Test
- Integration Testing
- Regression Testing
- Performance Testing
Of course, depending on your company some of the tests may not necessarly need to be performed by you. For instance, accpetance testing or performance testing are quite often left to other teams.
Plus, some testing may be done as "black-box testing", in which case it may even be best than you don't know the internals (or you may not have a choice to know at all), and in that situation it is of course less relevant for the original developers to be part of that testing effort. But they can still add their input, and they are likely to approach the problem in ways others may not have thought of.
However, I'd strongly recommend that developers, of any kind, participate in all testing efforts themselves or by directly working with whoever performs the testing in close-knit relationship.
It's a Matter of Culture/Philosophy, not of Technology
Most of the times, software shops host separate testing and development teams do it for the wrong reasons, or because they are kind of pushed into it (or feel lile they're pushed into it) by the development lifecycle and their methodology.
It's not a fatality and can be changed.
Also, some testing can sometimes be done on top of existing efforts by non-developers. It's best to even advise your clients to perform their own acceptance testing and performance to validate your results. And you definitely should press them hard to get involved in that, so you can make sure they know what they want, and that you know what they will expect from your deliverables!
A final note: testing is only relevant if you know what to test and how to interpret the metrics and results they deliver.