Does anyone have a diagram showing all significant programming paradigms. Something like this but with paradigms as titles would be ideal:
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As thorsten müller already gave the link to the diagram, and there are no close votes yet, let me take a shot at a proper answer.
First off, the diagram by Peter von Roy. Note that he is famous for his book Concepts, Techniques and Models of Computer Programming (together with Seif Haridi).
While that original book already covers a lot about programming paradigms, Peter von Roy has another book in work, which is title "Programming Paradigms for Dummies". The overview chapter is freely available at his site and is the source of the above diagram - in other words, you will find an excellent 39-page long explanation of the diagram in there.