Part of my job is working on line-of-business applications built around client-side databases, such as Access or FoxPro. Other times these local LOBA's have direct document access, such as an exact one-to-one mapping between a logical object an an XML node or references to bookmarks in Word Documents or ranges Excel spreadsheets.
While the code is about as messy as one would expect, it's usually fairly stable and the platforms these applications are built upon all have one thing in common: they translate program data to physical storage directly and transparently, from the programmer's point of view.
Would it be fair to refer to the database or document in one of these LOBA's as a "Model", when referring to the Model/View/Controller separation of concerns? Or would it be improper to call separation of UI and business-logic MVC unless we make intermediate objects that in turn map to either the UI or the database?