Every place I've worked, we had at least two mechanisms for documenting bug fixes. A changelog edited by the developer, and the commit log also edited by the developer. The latter is typically just entered as a "message" when you commit the file to source control.
I always follow two principles when fixing a bug and committing it.
First, I always enter a brief summary of the bug, the fix, and the module it's applied to in the changelog. Always keep in mind your audience for this text: everybody. From the other developers and yourself, to support and QA, the sales staff and even the customers. Everybody needs to understand your log entry. That means that to a certain extent you're writing to the lowest common denominator, but you still have to describe the bug and the fix in such a way so that the explanation is clear and not embarrassing to the company. Remember, the customers might read this. And be brief. I target less than 10 words.
Second, I add detailed information about the problem and the fix in the commit log. The audience for this text is very narrow: yourself and other developers. Get as technical and detailed as is useful. Since this is being committed to source control, it will be there forever in the form of a history log.
Also since the change is being comitted to source control, recall that source control itself is a change documentation tool that can and is used to explain technical changes. If a developer sees something in the change log that they want very specific details about, they will check the source control history and compare your change to the old version side-by-side. I do this all the time. This means you do not need to be verbose in any of your log entries about the what you changed. My verbose log entries are rare, and they are always focused on the why. The again, the why should also be documented in the code as comments.
Now, as to your question:
What is the best practice for a developer to show such things to
higher management to get noticed?
Emphasis mine. Let's talk about this. Coming from the perspective of higher management, I'm going to suggest that you don't. You will just come off as a whiney blowhard, always complaining about how hard your job is and how awesome you are. At least it could be perceived that way. It reflects badly on you to bloviate. Stick to the facts, get your work done, and kick ass. You will get noticed through the quality of your work. If you don't, move on.