After thinking about it a little I'm changing my answer a bit.
Every language can be compiled. But the problem is how much do you gain from such compilation. Compilation has two benefits: performance gain through optimalizations and early error checking through checking of type signatures. Both of those things depend heavily on indirection in code. Indirection is simply piece of code, that you can tell what will happen only when the code is running. In both cases of optimalization and type checking, any kind of indirection renders any attempts useless. Compiler cannot optimize code if it doesn't know what is going to happen next or what structure will function return and it cannot ensure if types are correct if it doesn't know what parameters the function can accept or what is contained in a variable.
Now, the languages that are usually compiled, like C++, C# and maybe Java, those contain little indirections. In C# for example indirections can only be achieved through virtual methods and delegates. Everything else is simple to predict without having to run the code. If you call
Math.Sqrt, then compiler knows 100% it is going to call this one method only. The gain from compiling those languages is huge.
On the other side, languages that are often interpreted usually have tons of indirections. This often stems from dynamic type system. In python for example, reading attribute from class can return absolutely anything at any time. You never know if read attribute will be int, string or function pointer. So even if you compile those, the gain is pretty negligible. The compiler can maybe pre-parse the code and do some minor optimalizations, but it cannot do things like function inlining, which usually have much bigger impact on performance.
Edit, old post:
I don't know what exactly you don't understand, because both those points are pretty self-explanatory.
With compiled languages the structure of code and data is static during compilation and cannot change during runtime. This does not stem from using compiler, but is requirement to be able to compile a language. The static structure then give compiler information necessary to predict how code will execute and optimize it out. Languages like C++, C# or Java fall into this category.