It's simply called an asynchronous error since this relates to incorrect asynchronous behavior.
The data was managed in a synchronous fashion when it's the result of an asynchronous event. So the handler function executed before another function finished.
What is asynchronous programming? It's defined as a one-way operation. Which means code sends a signal one-way into an object and there is no immediate signal sent back. So either it's a black-hole or you attach a handler to listen for a signal to come out later.
What is an asynchronous error? It is a problem with how the object triggers handlers for the one-way signal. They could be fired to soon, to late or not at all.
What is synchronous programming? It's defined as a two-way operation. Code sends a signal into an object and the object sends a response signal back.
What is a synchronous error? It's an error related to the two-way signals that define a synchronous operation. For example; a web browser connects to a web server, and the web server send a HTTP response before the web browser sends a HTTP request.
Synchronization error is what happens when two objects fail to achieve the same equal state. Think of synchronizing two databases on a fail-over server. If the second machine doesn't keep it's database identical to it's master, then it's a synchronization error.