I completely understand the Observer design pattern, what it is for and how to implement it. I also understand what the term 'loosely-coupled' means.

But I'm not sure how Observer makes designs more loosely-coupled.

For example, let's say I want objects B and C to get updates from object A about it's state. The Observer pattern is a great way to do that. But one could also implement this with a more 'brute-force' way, not using the pattern.

Please explain to me how the Observer pattern allows for more loosely-coupled designs. I'm not sure I completely understand. Thanks

(Again, I understand what 'loosely-coupled' means, but not exactly how Observer allows for designs to be more loosely-coupled).


3 Answers 3


By using the observer pattern, A needs not know about B or C. If you explicitly had A call B and C then it would necessarily know about B and C.

Depending on how you do it, B and C don't even know about A, some D ties them all together.

That "lack of knowledge" is at the core of decoupling components.

  • And this is achieved by providing B and C with a common supertype, so A doesn't need to know any specific information about them - apart from the fact that they implement/are this supertype. As opposed to not using the pattern, which will mean A has to know the concrete type of B and the concrete type of C, and the interfaces (public methods) that they provide - thus A becomes dependent on them. Correct?
    – Aviv Cohn
    Mar 30, 2014 at 18:58
  • @prog - no. The entire point of the observer pattern is that B and C act when they see some signal from A. That works regardless of any sort of basetype.
    – Telastyn
    Mar 30, 2014 at 19:59
  • I know, I meant that it doesn't matter what the types of B and C are, as long as they both implement the Observer interface, and as such are of a common base-type. And that's the only thing that A needs to know about them. This is what I meant by "achieved by providing B and C with a common supertype, so A doesn't need to know any specific information about them". Do you agree?
    – Aviv Cohn
    Mar 30, 2014 at 20:08
  • @Prog: B and C do not have to share a common supertype. They can be completely different types of objects. They simply must each support whatever interface is used for the observer pattern. For example, maybe they only need to subscribe to messages on an event bus. Mar 31, 2014 at 14:04

The simplest way to implement the observer pattern is to define two interfaces, say ISource and ISink in a type library.

Any objects that can send signals implement ISource and any objects that can receive signals implement ISink. These implementations depend on the type library, but do not need to contain any references to each other.

In your application you can then connect up your objects ISource and ISink interfaces without either class needing to have knowledge of the other objects implementation.


If you read the book GoF Book, there you will find the answer to your question in applicability section of the Observer pattern (page 294).

Applicability Use the Observer pattern in any of the following situations:

  • When an abstraction has two aspects, one dependent on the other. Encapsulating these aspects in separate objects lets you vary and reuse them independently.
  • When a change to one object requires changing others, and you don't know how many objects need to be changed.
  • When an object should be able to notify other objects without making assumptions about who these objects are. In other words, you don't what these objects tightly coupled.

There are a few keywords here: 'encapsulating', 'vary and reuse independently', 'a change in one object affecting others', and 'making assumption about objects'.

This can guide you in your investigation to understand the patter much better. Also, it may be a good idea to get a copy of the GoF book and give it a read.

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