1

I got confused about if a domain is required to access an external service in some state of it's life cycle.

The business rule is this :

If an Employee is accepting a JobSeeker's JobApplication, then the Employee must create an Appointment and have it e-mailed to the JobSeeker.

My current solutions are:

1 - Leave the mailing responsibility to the JobApplication domain

class JobApplication {
    public function makeAppointment(IMailService $mailService, IMailGenerator $mailGen, \DateTime $time, Address $address = null) {    
        $employer = $this->getVacancy()->getEmployer();

        $this->accept();

        $appointment = new Appointment($employer,
            $this->applicant,
            'Interview Invitation - '.$employer,
            $time,
            $address ?: $employer->getAddress()
        );

        $mailService->send(
            $appointment->getJobSeeker()->getMail(), 
            $appointment->getTitle(),
            $mailGen->generateAppointmentMail($appointment)
        );

        return $appointment;
    }    
}

I kinda feel awkward about this option, since it leaves the JobApplication entity to depends on the Mailing services.

2 - Create a new AppointmentService

class AppointmentService {
    private $mailService;
    private $mailGen;

    public function __construct(IMailService $mailService, IMailGenerator $mailGen) {
        $this->mailService = $mailService;
        $this->mailGen = $mailGen;
    }

    public function makeAppointmentFromJobApplication(JobApplication $application, \DateTime $time, Address $address = null) {
        $jobApplication->accept();

        $appointment = new Appointment($application->getCompany(),
            $application->getApplicant(),
            'Interview Invitation - '.$application->getCompany(),
            $time,
            $address ?: $application->getCompany()->getAddress()
        );

        $mailService->send(
            $appointment->getJobSeeker()->getMail(), 
            $appointment->getTitle(),
            $mailGen->generateAppointmentMail($appointment)
        );

        return $appointment;
    }
}

This option is nice since I only need to inject AppointmentService to the controller, but it leaves the Appointment class anemic.

I once read to never leave your domain to be dependent to domain services, the other way is fine. But some business rules do require services that existed out of the domain scope.

Is there another options?

Update - 1

A third option would be like this:

class Employer {
    public function acceptApplication(JobApplication $application) {
        if($application->isRejected()) throw new \Exception('Cannot make appointment for rejected application');

        $application->setAccepted();
    }

    public function makeAppointment(IAppointmentService $appointmentService, JobApplication $application, \DateTime $time, Address $address = null) {
        if(!$application->isAccepted()) $this->acceptApplication($application);

        return $appointmentService->makeAppointment($this, $application->getApplicant(), $time, $address ?: $this->getAddress());
    }
}

class AppointmentService {
    private $mailService;
    private $mailGenerator;

    public function makeAppointment(Employer $company, JobSeeker $jobSeeker, \DateTime $time, Address $address = null) {
        $appointment = new Appointment($company, 
            $jobSeeker,
            'Interview Invitation - '.$application->getCompany(),
            $time,
            $address
        );

        $this->mailAppointment($appointment);

        return $appointment;
    }

    private function mailAppointment(Appointment $appointment) {
        return $mailService->send($appointment->getJobSeeker, $appointment->getTitle, $mailGenerator->generateApplicationAppointment());
    }
}
  • Pass the service in as a parameter to the behaviour. – Daniel Little Apr 15 '14 at 6:03
  • @DanielLittle you mean like option 1? – Samuel Adam Apr 15 '14 at 6:13
  • Yes, although it's also recommended not to handle application concerns in your domain. As a side, in option 2 everything except the email sending should still be in the domain object (not the service). – Daniel Little Apr 15 '14 at 6:35
3

The rule is not to depend on infrastructure, but instead you can create an interface in terms of the business to communicate with that infrastructure. These are your services.

Sending mail is a business requirement, or service, but how you send mail is up to you. You may want to create your own business-specific mail interface, and one of the implementations of could bridge whatever mail library you are using.

Having said that, given your two options, I think #2 is more correct.

One major point which you've alluded to is to separate data from behaviour. You should be passing data around, and typically services are dependencies rather than business objects being passed around.

However, the current design still feels too focused on the services rather than the business object. Nothing about converting a job application into appointment mentions mail.

This leaves you with something like

class AppointmentScheduler {
    public function makeAppointmentFromJobApplication(JobApplication $application, \DateTime $time, Address $address = null) {
        $jobApplication->accept();

        return new Appointment($application->getCompany(),
            $application->getApplicant(),
            'Interview Invitation - '.$application->getCompany(),
            $time,
            $address ?: $application->getCompany()->getAddress()
        );
    }
}

The next question is, can a $jobApplication really accept itself? Who is accepting it? The applicant? the company?

I'd rather see the company explictly interacting with the application rather than hiding that internally. That's the real interaction that is happening here.

It seems there are a few richer interactions hiding within your code:

  • a Company accepting a JobApplication
  • the Company scheduling an Interview

and, as side effects from that:

  • the Company mailing the Applicant the Invitation
  • the Application being accepted
  • Hi, thanks for your input. I created a third option based on what I can understand. Is it suitable with your answer? – Samuel Adam Apr 15 '14 at 7:34

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