Questions in bold:
I've read the Apache Software License 2.0... What I gather is that all a person needs to do when redistributing the licensed software is include their name in all the parts they've modified(if any), include some notices and whatnot, and you're away. You don't even need to follow along with the license in all your additions/edits, because you can sub-license.
The thing I don't really get is, why would anyone want to use this kind of license, honestly? Am I missing something?
One more thing, does #include-ing(or similar) a licensed library mean that you are making a derivative of the licensed source, therefore binding you to the terms and conditions of the license?