Here is a simplified requirement:

User creates a Question with multiple Answers. Question must have at least one Answer.

Clarification: think Question and Answer as in a test: there is one question, but several answers, where few may be correct. User is the actor who is preparing this test, hence he creates question and answers.

I am trying to model this simple example so to 1) match the real life model 2) to be expressive with the code, so to minimize potential misuse and errors, and to give hints to developers how to use the model.

Question is an entity, while answer is value object. Question holds answers. So far, I have these possible solutions.

[A] Factory inside Question

Instead of creating Answer manually, we can call:

Answer answer = question.createAnswer()

That will create an answer and add it to the question. Then we can manipulate answer by setting it's properties. This way, only questions can crete an answer. Also, we prevent to have an answer without a question. Yet, we do not have control over creating answers, as that is hardcoded in the Question.

There is also one problem with the 'language' of above code. User is the one who creates answers, not the question. Personally, I don't like we create value object and depending on developer to fill it with values - how he can be sure what is required to add?

[B] Factory inside Question, take #2

Some says we should have this kind of method in Question:

question.addAnswer(String answer, boolean correct, int level....);

Similar to above solution, this method takes mandatory data for the answer and creates one that will be also added to the question.

Problem here is that we duplicate the constructor of the Answer for no good reason. Also, does question really creates an answer?

[C] Constructor dependencies

Let's be free to create both objects by our selves. Let's also express the dependency right in constructor:

Question q = new Question(...);
Answer a = new Answer(q, ...);   // answer can't exist without a question

This gives hints to developer, as answer can't be created without a question. However, we do not see the 'language' that says that answer is 'added' to the question. On the other hand, do we really need to see it?

[D] Constructor dependency, take #2

We can do the opposite:

Answer a1 = new Answer("",...);
Answer a2 = new Answer("",...);
Question q = new Question("", a1, a2);

This is opposite situation of above. Here answers can exist without a question (which does not make sense), but question can not exist without answer (which make sense). Also, the 'language' here is more clear on that question will have the answers.

[E] Common way

This is what I call the common way, the first thing that ppl usually do:

Question q = new Question("",...);
Answer a = new Answer("",...);

which is 'loose' version of above two answers, since both answer and question may exist without each other. There is no special hint that you have to bind them together.

[F] Combined

Or should I combine C, D, E - to cover all the ways how relationship can be made, so to help developers to use whatever is best for them.


I know people may choose one of the answers above based on the 'hunch'. But I wonder if any of above variant is better then the other with a good reason for that. Also, please don't think inside the above question, I would like to squeeze here some best practices that could be applied on most cases - and if you agree, most use cases of creation some entities are similar. Also, lets be technology agnostic here, eg. I do not want to think if ORM is going to be used or not. Just want good, expressive mode.

Any wisdom on this?


Please ignore other properties of Question and Answer, they are not relevant for the question. I edited above text and changed the most of the constructors (where needed): now they accept any of necessary property values needed. That may be just a question string, or map of strings in different languages, statuses etc. - whatever properties are passed, they are not a focus for this ;) So just assume we are above passing necessary parameters, unless said different. Thanx!

4 Answers 4


Updated. Clarifications taken into account.

Looks like this is a multiple choice domain, which usually has the following requirements

  1. a question must have at least two choices so that you could choose among
  2. there must be at least one correct choice
  3. there should not be a choice without a question

Based on the above

[A] can't ensure the invariant from point 1, you may end up with a question without any choice

[B] has the same disadvantage as [A]

[C] has the same disadvantage as [A] and [B]

[D] is a valid approach, but it's better to pass the choices as a list rather than passing them individually

[E] has the same disadvantage as [A], [B] and [C]

Hence, I would go for [D] because it allows to ensure domain rules from points 1, 2 and 3 are followed. Even if you say that it's very unlikely for a question to remain without any choice for a long period of time, it's always a good idea to convey domain requirements through the code.

I would also rename the Answer to Choice as it makes more sense to me in this domain.

public class Choice implements ValueObject {

    private Question q;
    private final String txt;
    private final boolean isCorrect;
    private boolean isSelected = false;

    public Choice(String txt, boolean isCorrect) {
        // validate and assign

    public void assignToQuestion(Question q) {
        this.q = q;

    public void select() {
        isSelected = true;

    public void unselect() {
        isSelected = false;

    public boolean isSelected() {
        return isSelected;

public class Question implements Entity {

    private final String txt;
    private final List<Choice> choices;

    public Question(String txt, List<Choice> choices) {
        // ensure requirements are met
        // 1. make sure there are more than 2 choices
        // 2. make sure at least 1 of the choices is correct
        // 3. assign each choice to this question

Choice ch1 = new Choice("The sky", false);
Choice ch2 = new Choice("Ceiling", true);
List<Choice> choices = Arrays.asList(ch1, ch2);
Question q = new Question("What's up?", choices);

A note. If you make the Question entity an aggregate root and the Choice value object a part of the same aggregate, there's no chances one can store a Choice without it being assigned to a Question (even though you don't pass a direct reference to the Question as an argument to the Choice's constructor), because the repositories work with roots only and once you build your Question you have all your choices assigned to it in the constructor.

Hope this helps.


If it really bothers you how the choices are created ahead of their question, there are few tricks you might find useful

1) Rearrange the code so that it looks like they are created after the question or at least at the same time

Question q = new Question(
    "What's up?",
        new Choice("The sky", false),
        new Choice("Ceiling", true)

2) Hide constructors and use a static factory method

public class Question implements Entity {

    private Question(String txt) { ... }

    public static Question newInstance(String txt, List<Choice> choices) {
        Question q = new Question(txt);
        for (Choice ch : choices) {

    public void assignChoice(Choice ch) { ... }

3) Use the builder pattern

Question q = new Question.Builder("What's up?")
    .assignChoice(new Choice("The sky", false))
    .assignChoice(new Choice("Ceiling", true))

However, everything depends on your domain. Most of the times the order of objects creation is not important from the problem domain perspective. What is more important is that as soon as you get an instance of your class it is logically complete and ready to use.

Outdated. Everything below is irrelevant to the question after clarifications.

First of all, according to DDD domain model should make sense in the real world. Hence, few points

  1. a question may have no answers
  2. there should not be an answer without a question
  3. an answer should correspond to exactly one question
  4. an "empty" answer doesn't answer a question

Based on the above

[A] may contradict point 4 because it's easy to misuse and forget to set the text.

[B] is a valid approach but requires parameters that are optional

[C] may contradict point 4 because it allows an answer with no text

[D] contradicts point 1 and may contradict points 2 and 3

[E] may contradict points 2, 3 and 4

Secondly, we can make use of OOP features to enforce domain logic. Namely we can use constructors for the required parameters and setters for the optional ones.

Thirdly, I would use the ubiquitous language which is supposed to be more natural for the domain.

And finally, we can design it all using DDD patterns like aggregate roots, entities and value objects. We can make the Question a root of its aggregate and the Answer a part of it. This is a logical decision because an answer has no meaning outside of a question's context.

So, all the above boil down to the following design

class Answer implements ValueObject {

    private final Question q;
    private String txt;
    private boolean isCorrect = false;

    Answer(Question q, String txt) {
        // validate and assign

    public void markAsCorrect() {
        isCorrect = true;

    public boolean isCorrect() {
        return isCorrect;

public class Question implements Entity {

    private String txt;
    private final List<Answer> answers = new ArrayList<>();

    public Question(String txt) {
        // validate and assign

    // Ubiquitous Language: answer() instead of addAnswer()
    public void answer(String txt) {
        answers.add(new Answer(this, txt));

Question q = new Question("What's up?");
q.answer("The sky");

P.S. Answering to your question I made few assumptions about your domain which might not be correct, so feel free to adjust the above with your specifics.

  • 1
    To summarize: this is a mix of B and C. Please see my clarification of the requirements. Your point 1. may exist only for 'short' period of time, while building a question; but not in the database. In that sense, 4. should never happens. I hope now the requirements are clear ;)
    – lawpert
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 11:47
  • Btw, with the clarification, to me it seems that addAnswer or assignAnswer would be better language than just answer, i hope you agree on this. Anyway, my question is - would you still go for the B and e.g. have the copy of most of the arguments in the answer method? Wouldn't that be duplication?
    – lawpert
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 11:49
  • Sorry for the unclear requirements, would you be so kind to update the answer?
    – lawpert
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 11:51
  • 1
    Turns out my assumptions were incorrect. I treated your QA domain as an example of stackexchange websites but it looks more like a multiple choice test. Sure, I'll update my answer.
    – zafarkhaja
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 12:04
  • 1
    @lawpert Answer is a value object, it's going to be stored with an aggregate root of its aggregate. You don't store value objects directly, nor do you save entities if they are not roots of their aggregates.
    – zafarkhaja
    Commented Oct 31, 2014 at 8:02

In case where requirements are so simple, that multiple possible solutions exist, then KISS principle should be followed. In your case, that would be option E.

There is also case of creating code that expresses something, that it should not. For example tying creation of Answers to Question (A and B) or giving Answer reference to Question (C and D) add some behavior that is not necessary to the domain and might be confusing. Also, in your case, Question would most probably be aggregate with Answer and Answer would be a value type.

  • 1
    Why [C] is an unnecessary behavior? As I see it, [C] communicates that Answer can not live without a Question, and that is exactly what it is. Moreover, imagine if Answer requires some more flags (e.g. answer type, category, etc) which are mandatory. Going KISS we are loosing that knowledge of what is mandatory, and developer must to know in the front what he needs to add/set to the Answer in order to make it right. I believe here the question was not to model this very simple example, but to find the better practice to write ubiquitous language using OO.
    – igor
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 7:22
  • @igor E already communicates that Answer is part of Question by making it mandatory to assign Answer to question for it to be saved is repository. If there was a way to save just Answer without loading it's question, then C would be better. But that is not a obvious from what you written.
    – Euphoric
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 8:39
  • @igor Also, if you want to tie creation of Answer with Question, then A would be better, because if you go with C, then it hides when the answer is assigned to question. Also, reading your text in A, you should differentiate "model behavior" and who initiates this behavior. Question could be responsible for creating answers, when it needs to initialize the answer in some way. It has nothing to do with "user creating answers".
    – Euphoric
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 8:45
  • Just for the record, Im torn between C&E :) Now, this: "...by making it mandatory to assign Answer to question for it to be saved is repository." This means that the 'mandatory' part comes only when we come to the repository. So the mandatory connection is not 'visible' to developer at compile time, and the business rules leaks in the repository. Thats why I am testing the [C] here. Maybe this talk can give more info about what I think C option is about.
    – igor
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 9:01
  • This: "...want to tie creation of Answer with Question...". I don't want to tie the _creation itself. Just want to express the mandatory relationship.(personally like to be able to create model objects by myself, when possible). So, in my view, this is not about creating, thats why I ditch A and B soon. I do not see that Question is responsible for creating the answer.
    – igor
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 9:05

I would go either [C] or [E].

First, why not A and B? I don't want my Question be responsible for creating any related value. Imagine if Question has many other value objects - would you put create method for every one? Or if there are some complex aggregates, the same case.

Why not [D]? Because it is opposite to what we have in nature. We first do create a Question. You can imagine a web page where you create all this - user would first create a question, right? Therefore, not D.

[E] is KISS, like @Euphoric said. But I also start to like [C] recently. This is not so confusing as it seems. Moreover, imagine if Question depends on more things - then developer must to know what he needs to put inside the Question to have it properly initialized. Although you are right - there is no 'visual' language explaining that answer is actually added to the question.

Additional reading

Questions like this makes me wonder if our computer languages are too generic for modeling. (I understand they have to be generic to answer on all programming requirements). Recently I am trying to find a better way to express the business language using fluent interfaces. Something like this (in sudo language):


i.e. trying to move away from any big *Services and *Repository classes to smaller chunks of business logic. Just an idea.

  • You are talking in the addon about the Domain Specific Languages?
    – lawpert
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 8:31
  • Now when you mentioned, it looks so :) Buy I do not have any significant experience with it.
    – igor
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 8:34
  • 2
    I think there is a consensus by now that IO is an orthogonal resposibility and thus should not be handled by entities(storeToRepo) Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 11:18
  • I agree @Esben Skov Pedersen that entity itself should not call repo inside (thats what you said, right?); but as AFAIU here we have some kind of builder pattern behind that invokes commands; so IO is not done in the entity here. At least this is how Ive understood it;)
    – lawpert
    Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 11:40
  • @lawpert that is correct. I fail to see how it is supposed to work but would be interesting. Commented Oct 22, 2014 at 12:11

I believe you missed a point here, your Aggregate root should be your Test Entity.

And if it's really the case I believe a TestFactory would be best suited to answer your problem.

You would delegate the Question and Answer building to the Factory and therefore you could basically use any solution you thought of without corrupting your model because you are hiding to the client the way you instantiate your sub entities.

This is, as long as the TestFactory is the only interface you use to instantiate your Test.

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