I mean descend as in languages who's original compiler/interpreter was written in C or in a language that descends from C.
If you don't count assembly, the only thing that comes to my mind is B. Are there any others?
Software Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for professionals, academics, and students working within the systems development life cycle. It only takes a minute to sign up.Sign up to join this community
Don't forget Algol, which has been called a vast improvement over most of its imitators, including C.
Both COBOL and FORTRAN came long before C. I've seen a COBOL compiler written in RPG.
It's not unusual for a language's first compiler to be written in that language. The first compilation can be done by hand, and the first thing compiled with the hand-compiled compiler is the very same source code that was just hand-compiled. And the first thing compiled with that first machine-compiled compiler is the same source file yet again. If the hand-built compiler and the self-compiled compiler produce exactly the same output from this same source file, you know the compiler works "well enough", and the hand-compiled compiler can be thrown away.
Notice that the hand-built compiler doesn't need to produce efficient code or produce it efficiently. In fact, it doesn't even need to compile any feature of the language that the compiler itself doesn't use. That makes it feasible to bootstrap even "large" languages this way.
Forth might be considered to have been written this way. There is only a tiny part of the Forth runtime that needs to be written in Assembler, and everything else can be written in Forth itself.
In addition to Lisp, Smalltalk, Forth, COBOL, and FORTRAN mentioned by others, there's Pascal, Modula, Fortran, PL/I, BASIC, Snobol, and APL, to name some of the more popular languages that were neither descended from nor implemented in C. Early languages were implemented or bootstrapped in assembler.
Here's a small family tree of programming languages.
Lisp and Smalltalk are good examples of such languages who were not descended from C. There was also a programming language named BCPL before C which isn't in use nowadays.