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There is a lot of pointers in C++ but to be honest in 5 years or so in C++ programming (specifically with the Qt Framework) I only use the old raw pointer:

SomeKindOfObject *someKindOfObject = new SomeKindOfObject();

I know there are a lot of other "smart" pointers:

// shared pointer:
shared_ptr<SomeKindofObject> Object;

// unique pointer:
unique_ptr<SomeKindofObject> Object;

// weak pointer:
weak_ptr<SomeKindofObject> Object;

But I don't have the slightest idea of what to do with them and what they can offer me in comparison of raw pointers.

For example I have this class header:

#ifndef LIBRARY
#define LIBRARY

class LIBRARY
{
public:
    // Permanent list that will be updated from time to time where
    // each items can be modified everywhere in the code:
    QList<ItemThatWillBeUsedEveryWhere*> listOfUselessThings; 
private:
    // Temporary reader that will read something to put in the list
    // and be quickly deleted:
    QSettings *_reader;
    // A dialog that will show something (just for the sake of example):
    QDialog *_dialog;
};

#endif 

This is clearly not exhaustive but for each of these 3 pointers is it OK to leave them "raw" or should I use something more appropriate?

And in the second time, if an employer will read the code, will he be strict on what kind of pointers I use or not?

  • This topic seems so appropriate for SO. this was in 2008. And here's Which kind of pointer do I use when?. I'm sure you can find even better matches. These were just the first I saw – sehe Feb 28 '15 at 23:11
  • imo this one's borderline since it's as much about the conceptual meaning/intent of these classes as it is about the technical details of their behavior and implementations. Since the accepted answer leans toward the former, I'm happy with having this be the "PSE version" of that SO question. – Ixrec Mar 1 '15 at 19:40
69

A "raw" pointer is unmanaged. That is, the following line:

SomeKindOfObject *someKindOfObject = new SomeKindOfObject();

... will leak memory if an accompanying delete is not executed at the proper time.

auto_ptr

In order to minimize these cases, std::auto_ptr<> was introduced. Due to the limitations of C++ prior to the 2011 standard, however, it's still very easy for auto_ptr to leak memory. It is sufficient for limited cases, such as this, however:

void func() {
    std::auto_ptr<SomeKindOfObject> sKOO_ptr(new SomeKindOfObject());
    // do some work
    // will not leak if you do not copy sKOO_ptr.
}

One of its weakest use-cases is in containers. This is because if a copy of an auto_ptr<> is made and the old copy is not carefully reset, then the container may delete the pointer and lose data.

unique_ptr

As a replacement, C++11 introduced std::unique_ptr<>:

void func2() {
    std::unique_ptr<SomeKindofObject> sKOO_unique(new SomeKindOfObject());

    func3(sKOO_unique); // now func3() owns the pointer and sKOO_unique is no longer valid
}

Such a unique_ptr<> will be correctly cleaned up, even when it's passed between functions. It does this by semantically representing "ownership" of the pointer - the "owner" cleans it up. This makes it ideal for use in containers:

std::vector<std::unique_ptr<SomeKindofObject>> sKOO_vector();

Unlike auto_ptr<>, unique_ptr<> is well-behaved here, and when the vector resizes, none of the objects will be accidentally deleted while the vector copies its backing store.

shared_ptr and weak_ptr

unique_ptr<> is useful, to be sure, but there are cases where you want two parts of your code base to be able to refer to the same object and copy the pointer around, while still being guaranteed proper cleanup. For example, a tree might look like this, when using std::shared_ptr<>:

template<class T>
struct Node {
    T value;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> left;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> right;
};

In this case, we can even hold on to multiple copies of a root node, and the tree will be properly cleaned up when all copies of the root node are destroyed.

This works because each shared_ptr<> holds on to not only the pointer to the object, but also a reference count of all of the shared_ptr<> objects that refer to the same pointer. When a new one is created, the count goes up. When one is destroyed, the count goes down. When the count reaches zero, the pointer is deleted.

So this introduces a problem: Double-linked structures end up with circular references. Say we want to add a parent pointer to our tree Node:

template<class T>
struct Node {
    T value;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> parent;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> left;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> right;
};

Now, if we remove a Node, there's a cyclic reference to it. It'll never be deleted because its reference count will never be zero.

To solve this problem, you use a std::weak_ptr<>:

template<class T>
struct Node {
    T value;
    std::weak_ptr<Node<T>> parent;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> left;
    std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> right;
};

Now, things will work correctly, and removing a node will not leave stuck references to the parent node. It makes walking the tree a little more complicated, however:

std::shared_ptr<Node<T>> parent_of_this = node->parent.lock();

This way, you can lock a reference to the node, and you have a reasonable guarantee it won't disappear while you're working on it, since you're holding on to a shared_ptr<> of it.

make_shared and make_unique

Now, there are some minor problems with shared_ptr<> and unique_ptr<> that should be addressed. The following two lines have a problem:

foo_unique(std::unique_ptr<SomeKindofObject>(new SomeKindOfObject()), thrower());
foo_shared(std::shared_ptr<SomeKindofObject>(new SomeKindOfObject()), thrower());

If thrower() throws an exception, both lines will leak memory. And more than that, shared_ptr<> holds the reference count far away from the object it points to and this can mean a second allocation). That's not usually desirable.

C++11 provides std::make_shared<>() and C++14 provides std::make_unique<>() to solve this problem:

foo_unique(std::make_unique<SomeKindofObject>(), thrower());
foo_shared(std::make_shared<SomeKindofObject>(), thrower());

Now, in both cases, even if thrower() throws an exception, there will not be a leak of memory. As a bonus, make_shared<>() has the opportunity to create its reference count in the same memory space as its managed object, which can both be faster and can save a few bytes of memory, while giving you an exception safety guarantee!

Notes about Qt

It should be noted, however, that Qt, which must support pre-C++11 compilers, has its own garbage-collection model: Many QObjects have a mechanism where they will be destroyed properly without the need for the user to delete them.

I do not know how QObjects will behave when managed by C++11 managed pointers, so I can not say that shared_ptr<QDialog> is a good idea. I do not have enough experience with Qt to say for sure, but I believe that Qt5 has been adjusted for this use case.

  • 1
    @Zilators: Please note my added comment about Qt. The answer to your question about whether all three pointers should be managed depends on whether Qt objects will behave well. – greyfade Feb 28 '15 at 22:37
  • 2
    "both make separate allocation to hold the pointer"? No, unique_ptr never allocates anything extra, only shared_ptr must allocate a reference-count+allocator-object. "both lines will leak memory"? no, only might, not even a guarantee of bad behavior. – Deduplicator Feb 28 '15 at 23:25
  • 1
    @Deduplicator: My wording must have been unclear: The shared_ptr is a separate object - a separate allocation - from the newed object. They exist in different locations. make_shared has the ability to put them together at the same location, which improves cache locality, among other things. – greyfade Feb 28 '15 at 23:28
  • 2
    @greyfade: Nononono. shared_ptr is an object. And to manage an object, it must allocate a (reference-counts (weak+strong) + destroyer)-object. make_shared allows allocating that and the managed object as one piece. unique_ptr does not use those, thus there's no corresponding advantage, aside from making sure the object is always owned by the smart-pointer. As an aside, one can have a shared_ptr which owns an underlying object and represents a nullptr, or which does not own and represents a non-nullpointer. – Deduplicator Feb 28 '15 at 23:31
  • 1
    I looked at it, and there seems to be a general confusion about what a shared_ptr does: 1. It shares ownership of some object (represented by an internal dynamically-allocated object having a weak and a strong reference count, as well as a deleter). 2. It contains a pointer. Those two parts are independent. make_unique and make_shared both make sure the allocated object is put safely into a smart-pointer. In addition, make_shared allows allocating the ownership-object and the managed pointer together. – Deduplicator Feb 28 '15 at 23:53

protected by gnat Jun 30 '16 at 11:05

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