I'm working on adding multi-precision integers to the suite of numeric types in my APL interpreter, but I'm not sure what to do about the odd type-combinations that now arise. I now have the following types:

IMM "atomic" small integer
FIX full-width integer
FLO floating-point double
MPI multi-precision integer

I have a variable which controls which larger type to use for integer overflow, either FLO or MPI. Mixed MPI/IMM/FIX operations, since they're all integers, can simply promote to the widest type and produce a result of that type. And mixed FLO/IMM/FIX operations can follow the same pattern since a double can comfortably accommodate all the values of a 32-bit integer. This covers most of the cases. But it leaves me with these type combinations which don't have an obvious (to me) rule to follow.

FLO {+-*/} MPI
MPI {+-*/} FLO

Having written this out, I suppose there really is an obvious solution (multi-precision floating-point). But I don't want to do that right now. Is there a sensible shortcut I can take (for now)?

As a "worst case" scenario that at least delivers some kind of result, I can implement conversions between these two types. But there's potential loss of data each way.

FLO -> MPI loses fractional part of floating-point number
MPI -> FLO loses precision from integer

2 Answers 2


Another option is to add a rational number type. This is stored as two integers, which usually will need to be multi-precision, and can represent any floating point value including the result of an operation between floating point and a multi-precision integer.

This way there is no loss of information. But there is a lot of work involved and should only be done if the user wants it.

  • A rational/multi-precision type was already in the plan but I hadn't realized that it would fix this hole. I'd sooner do this than mess with the details of floating-point. Commented Apr 30, 2015 at 5:07

As a start, if we begin to consider the actual quantities involved then some subcases might be handled easily. It might also depend upon the operation we want to do.

MPI {+-} FLO
FLO {+-} MPI

If the FLO has a zero fractional part, then it can be converted to MPI losslessly. If it does have a fraction, then we probably want to keep the fraction and we ought to convert the MPI to FLO and cope with the loss of precision somehow.


Now here, we might want to perform a scaling operation on the MPI, so perhaps a little algebra can wiggle us out a result.

FLO = int + (1/frac)
  = MPI * (int + (1/frac))
  = (MPI * int) + (MPI/frac)

All of this seems to lead to a user-configurable parameter that selects which type to yield.

Or if the MPI is exactly representable as a double, then it can be converted without fear. Although the result may lose precision if the values are near the representation limits.

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.