Fortran II (1958) was recorded using line numbers, from what I can tell. For example, the first five columns of this IBM punch card are titled "statement number".
Punch card from a typical Fortran program. Arnold Reinhold (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FortranCardPROJ039.agr.jpg)
Columns 1 to 5 may be used to write numbers by which the statement may subsequently be referenced. (Fortran II General Information Manual. 1963. p. 7)
Was Fortran 2 the first programming language (or machine language) to be recorded using line numbers?
Line numbers are not a requirement for a programming language (or machine language), but they are of such practical importance that I am curious if there ever was a language recorded without them.
Obviously, if a program is read into addressable memory, each instruction has a memory address. This question is not about memory addresses, it is about the recorded form of the program, on the media on which the program is recorded at rest, e.g. a punch card.