I just spent a long, miserable week debugging a stack-overflow in a C++/Qt application. The fundamental problem was that I had a function that accepted a callback, and in certain cases the callback was triggered (in another function) before the original function returned. In this case, the callback happened to cause an identical callback to be registered before the callback itself completed.

The solution, since I'm using the Qt event loop, was to schedule the callback to be triggered by a single-shot QTimer, rather than calling it directly. (For those who haven't used Qt, a single-shot QTimer with a 0-millisecond timeout is just a way to ensure that a unit of work is triggered by the event-loop; it's roughly equivalent to Boost-Asio's io_service::post.) Alternatively, the callback itself could have scheduled the callback-registration function instead of calling it directly.

Is this a known problem, and is there a standard way to deal with it?

There are several possible best-practice guidelines I can think of that might help:

  • All callbacks must either be obviously short-lived (e.g. setting flags and then returning) or schedule a "long" callback to be triggered directly by the program's main event loop.
    • This has the obvious drawback of requiring clients to use a main event loop, and it makes callbacks somewhat more complicated. It also places seemingly arbitrary restrictions on how callbacks can be structured.
  • Conversely: all functions that take a callback must schedule their real "work" in via the event loop.
    • This has the same drawback as above, but on the other side of the client relationship.
  • Functions that trigger callbacks must only be called via the event loop.
    • This seems like a simpler rule, but I'm not sure how easy it would be to follow in practice.
  • Callbacks themselves can only be called via the event-loop.
    • This is slightly stronger than the above principle, and possibly easier to enforce. It would be something like a "purely-event-driven" architecture.

All of these have pretty obvious drawbacks, and I can't think of any strategies that would work without some way of postponing callbacks via the application's main loop, so in effect I don't see a safe way to use callbacks in a long-running application without using something like the Qt event loop.

As per request, here's some Python-esque pseudocode to explain the particular problem I had:

class TransactionManager:
    def newTransaction(Callback cb, ...):
        if (can schedule transaction) { scheduleTransaction(cb, ...); }
        else { cb(error); }
    def scheduleTransaction(Callback cb, ...):
        ... // set up the transaction itself and register the callback

class TaskManager:
    def newShortTask(Callback cb, ...):
        // In the original code, an intermediary `ShortTask` object
        // was created, and the `ShortTask` created a separate callback
        // to do some other work in addition to calling `cb`. That's not
        // pertinent to the issue at hand, so it's not included in the
        // pseudocode.
        myTransactionManager.newTransaction(cb, .... );

class LongTask:
    def start():
                lambda (...): self.handleSubtaskFinished(...),
    def handleSubtaskFinished(...):
        if (task failed):
            start();  // try again
            ... // continue with task

The problem was that the success of a "transaction" is partially determined by the state of the hardware, and I was testing what happens when the hardware is (temporarily) unable to perform any of the requested transaction. The order of operations was therefore:

  • LongTask::start() is called.
  • LongTask::start starts a new "short" task via the TaskManager
  • The new "short" task schedules a new transaction via the TransactionManager
  • The short task immediately fails, because the hardware is in a bad state. Before TransactionManager::newTransaction() returns, the callback cb is called.
  • LongTask::handleSubtaskFinished() sees that its subtask has failed, so it immediately tries again, going back to the top of this list without unwinding the stack.

NOTE that in this case the "infinite loop until the hardware fixes itself" behavior is correct; the problem is that the application must ensure it doesn't run out of stack-space while waiting for the hardware failure to be corrected.

  • Your question is too vague. Can you please post just the gist of the code that is causing the problem? Sounds like it's just a couple of callbacks and maybe one other bit. I'm guessing that your problem would be cured by following the MVC pattern but I can't say without seeing the code. Apr 18, 2016 at 19:44
  • @kevincline I've added pseudocode. Apr 18, 2016 at 20:14
  • 1
    The problem has nothing to do with events or callbacks. You are inappropriately using recursion for an unbounded series of retries. Apr 19, 2016 at 22:16
  • @kevincline What's intrinsically "inappropriate" about using recursion for an unbounded series of retries? Apr 20, 2016 at 4:47
  • @rwong So which part of the application is responsible for repeatedly calling the function, in a design without recursion? I suppose you could schedule a recurring timer to continuously call it, but I fail to see the advantage of that compared to the recursive solution. (Your solution, and mine, of a call chain with a "seam" is still in fact recursive, just not directly. I'm also not sure which part of your comment is "difficult to explain"--it should be clear from my original question that I understand why it's necessary to go through the event loop.) Apr 20, 2016 at 4:57

2 Answers 2


I think the problem is the same one as with any unintendend infinite recursion: You are not perfectly sure what the callee does when you call it, and if that callee happens to call the caller with unchanged arguments, you are doomed. I really don't think that your case is any different, only the involved mechanics differ.

So, I would apply the same to your situation as to recursion in general: It's not a good idea to forbid it in general since any such scheme will a) forbid a lot of legit code to avoid undesirable behavior in some special cases, and b) be insufficient to avoid undesirable behavior unless it's as strict as a tight-jacket. Instead, infinite recursions should be avoided by thinking about your function calls, and likewise infinite callback recursions should be avoided by thinking about your callback registrations.

  • Note that in this case the behavior of an infinite-loop is desired, since the long-running task is supposed to continue trying to accomplish its goal until the hardware returns to a good state and performs the desired operation. It just can't run out of stack-space while doing so. Apr 18, 2016 at 20:49
  • So either an "event-loop delayed recursion" or some kind of tail-call optimization is required, or else a complete re-architecting (I think). Apr 18, 2016 at 20:53

I'm not 100% sure of the problem you had but it seems like you had issues with callbacks calling callbacks, or at least callbacks being called out of sequence.

Why that was occurring seems to be that you are combining a callback-based architecture with an event based one, so you don't have full control over your program flow.

A simple answer would be to say use one or the other, and if you have to mix them, only do it in very specific cases with great care.

  • 2
    I'm not sure I understand what distinction you're drawing between "callback-based" and "event-based". As far as I can tell, event-handlers are callbacks. This is corroborated by another question on the site. Apr 18, 2016 at 16:29
  • I mean the way you call them - if you have an event loop making these calls, you do not want to subvert that by sneaking the same calls in directly. Either use the event loop, or have everything call the callbacks directly. I find things work that way, if you mix the two, you end up with the kind of problems you've seen, and workarounds like timers.
    – gbjbaanb
    Apr 18, 2016 at 18:54
  • Ah. You may not be familiar with Qt, but in fact the timers are only used in this case because they're the only way to schedule a one-off unit of work via the event loop (a single-shot with a 0-millisecond timeout is equivalent to Boost-Asio's io_service::post) rather than calling it directly. Apr 18, 2016 at 19:27
  • So it sounds like your advice is something like my third proposed principle, "Functions that trigger callbacks must only be called via the event loop," except you're proposing that the callbacks themselves can only be triggered by the event loop. Apr 18, 2016 at 19:28
  • Or your 4th bullet point :-) I wasn't trying to fix your Qt problem (because then you'd have posted on SO and not here) but general architectural advice. When people talk of callbacks and event loops, I think of the messes made in MFC calling methods directly instead of using postmessage, particularly wrt the GUI and especially when threads are involved.
    – gbjbaanb
    Apr 19, 2016 at 7:20

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