No, because an implementation doesn't have to take command line options. § 16.2.2 states for the angle form (or system header inclusion; there isn't a standard name I'm aware of (sound off in the comments)), the preprocessor:
searches a sequence of implementation-defined places for a header identified uniquely by the specified sequence between the < and > delimiters
The header doesn't even need to be a file.
Specific compilers may make this guarantee. The g++ manual, for example, states:
If you use more than one -I option, the directories are scanned in left-to-right order; the standard system directories come after.