In my experience, many of the projects I have read in the past didn't have relationship definitions in the database, instead they only defined them in the source code. So I'm wondering what are the advantages/disadvantages of defining relations between tables in the database and in source code? And the broader question is about other advanced features in modern databases like cascade, triggers, procedures... There are some points in my thoughts:

In the database:

  • Correct data from design. Prevent application errors which can cause invalid data.

  • Reduce network round trip to application when inserting/updating data as application has to make more query(s) to check data integrity.

In source code:

  • More flexible.

  • Better when scaling to multiple databases, as sometimes the relation can be cross-database.

  • More control over data integrity. The database doesn't have to check every time the application modifies data (complexity can be O(n) or O(n log n) (?)). Instead, it's delegated to application. And I think handling data integrity in the application will lead to more verbose error messages than using the database. Eg: when you create an API server, if you define the relations in the database, and something goes wrong (like the referenced entity doesn't exist), you will get an SQL Exception with a message. The simple way will be to return 500 to the client that there is an "Internal server error" and the client will have no idea what is going wrong. Or the server can parse the message to figure out what's wrong, which is an ugly, error-prone way in my opinion. If you let the application handle this, the server can generate a more meaningful message to client.

Is there anything else?

Edit: as Kilian points out, my point about performance & data integrity is very misguided. So I edited to correct my point there. I totally understand that letting the database handle it will be a more efficient and robust approach. Please check the updated question and give some thoughts about it.

Edit: thank you everyone. The answers I received all point out that the constraints/relations should be defined in the database. :). I have one more question, as it is quite out of scope of this question, I've just posted it as a separate question: Handle database error for API server. Please leave some insights.

  • 4
    "as application has to make more query(s) to check data integrity." Not necessarily. If the database is fully under the control of your application, extra checks of the data integrity may be overly defensive programming. You don't necessarily need them; just test your application appropriately to ensure it makes only valid changes to the database.
    – user82096
    Oct 26 '16 at 6:53
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    There's one thing you never should forget: Unless everybody involved writes perfect software, if the checks are in the software, one of these checks will fail and lead to constraints not being enforced. It's not a question of if, but of when. This leads to hard to reproduce errors and long hours of massaging the data to fit the software enforced constraints again.
    – Dabu
    Oct 26 '16 at 8:43
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    Something worth mentioning... once you introduce integrity problems to your database it is a kin to opening Pandora's box. It is a nightmare to reintroduce integrity to a anomaly-ridden database. Keeping tight controls on your database may be a hassle but it will save you a lot of pain in the long run.
    – DanK
    Oct 26 '16 at 13:30
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    In source code: You eventually end up writing most of a database.
    – Blrfl
    Oct 26 '16 at 14:45
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    I once asked a very talented programmer a similar question he told me "Its like brakes on a car. The point isn't to make the car go slower, but to allow it to go faster safer." Sure its possible to run without constraints but if bad data somehow gets in, it can cause a serious crash
    – mercurial
    Oct 26 '16 at 20:55

11 Answers 11


TL;DR: Relationship constraints should go in the database.

Your application ain't big enough.

You are correct, indeed, that enforcing relationships across databases may require enforcing them in the application.

I would point out, however, that you should first check the documentation of the database software you are using, and check existing product offers. For example, there are clustering offers on top of Postgres and MySQL.

And even if you end up needing to have some validation in the application, don't throw out the baby with the bath water. After all, the less you have to do, the better off you are.

Finally, if you are worried about future scalability issues, I am afraid that your application will have to undergo significant changes before it can scale anyway. As a rule of thumb, every time you grow 10x, you have to re-design... so let's not sink too much money into failing to anticipate scalability issues, and instead use money to actually reach the point where you have those issues.

Your application ain't correct enough.

What is the chance that the database you use have a faulty implementation of the check compared to the chance that your application has a faulty implementation of the check?

And which one do you alter most often?

I'd bet on the database being correct, any time.

Your developers ain't thinking distributed enough.

Reduce network round trip to application when insert/update data as application has to make more query(s) to check data integrity.

Red Flag!1

If you are thinking:

  • check if the record exists
  • if not, insert record

then you failed the most basic concurrency issue: another process/thread might be adding the record as you go.

If you are thinking:

  • check if the record exists
  • if not, insert record
  • check if the record was inserted as a duplicate

then you failed to account for MVCC: the view of the database that you have is a snapshot at the time your transaction started; it does not show all the updates that are occurring, and maybe not even committed.

Maintaining constraints across multiple sessions is a really hard problem, be glad it's solved in your database.

1 Unless your database properly implements the Serializable property; but few actually do.


And I think, handle data integrity in application will let to more verbose error message than using database. Eg: when you create an API server. If you define relations in database, and something go wrong(like the referenced entity doesn't exist), you will get an SQL Exception with message.

Do not parse error messages, if you use any production-grade database it should return structured errors. You'll have some error code, at least, to indicate what is possibly wrong, and based on this code you can craft a suitable error message.

Note that most of the times the code is enough: if you have an error code telling you that a referenced foreign key does not exist, then it's likely that this table only has one foreign key, so you know in the code what the problem is.

Also, and let's be honest here, most of the times you will not handle errors that gracefully anyway. Just because there are so many of them and you'll fail to account for them all...

... which just ties in to the correctness point above. Each time you see a "500: Internal Server Error" because a database constraint fired and was not handled, it means the database saved you, since you just forgot to handle it in the code.

  • 3
    Haha, you wrote this as I was writing my comment, ironically emphasising the point we are both making. I totally agree: You can't even do integrity or constraints in non DB code. Transactions can't see the results of others until they are committed (and even then maybe not). You may get the illusion of integrity but it's subject to timing or serious scalability issues due to locks. Only the database can do this correctly. Oct 26 '16 at 12:08
  • 8
    All good points. Another is that relationships in a database are self documenting. If you've ever had to reverse engineer a database that had its relationships defined only in the code querying it, you will hate anyone that does it that way.
    – Kat
    Oct 27 '16 at 18:57
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    @Kat11: That's true. And self-describing also has the advantage that tools can easily understand the data and act on it, which can be useful sometimes. Oct 28 '16 at 6:22
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    Your argument about MVCC is not accurate in DBs that implement SERIALIZABLE isolation correctly (modern versions of PostgreSQL do, for example - although many major RDBMSs do not). In such a DB, even the first, naïve, approach would work correctly - if writes conflict, they will be rolled back as a serialization failure.
    – James_pic
    Oct 28 '16 at 9:37
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    In DBs that implement SERIALIZABLE correctly, if you take all the successfully committed transactions, then there is some ordering (which may not be the same as wall-clock ordering), such that if you had run all of them serially (with no concurrency) in that order, all results would have been exactly the same. It's tricky to get right, and the SQL specs are vague enough that you could convince yourself that it's OK to allow write skew at SERIALIZABLE level, so many DB vendors treat SERIALIZABLE as SNAPSHOT ISOLATION (I'm looking at you Oracle).
    – James_pic
    Oct 28 '16 at 9:59

The database doesn't have to check for data integrity every time application modify data.

This is a deeply misguided point. Databases were created for precisely this purpose. If you need data integrity checks (and if you think you don't need them, you're probably mistaken), then letting the database handle them is almost certainly more efficient and less error-prone than doing it in application logic.

  • 5
    @dan1111 I don't understand your comment... are you saying: simple constraints are enforced by the database, so they are not a problem for the application code, more complex constraints are too hard to implement so just give up on them? Or are you saying that implementing complex constraints using database triggers (and similar mechanism) is too complex and so it's better to implement them in the application code?
    – Bakuriu
    Oct 26 '16 at 8:43
  • 48
    You can't even do integrity or constraints in non DB code. Transactions can't see the results of others until they are committed (and even then maybe not). You may get the illusion of integrity but it's subject to timing or serious scalability issues due to locks. Only the database can do this correctly. Oct 26 '16 at 12:04
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    Anecdotally, to follow on from @LoztInSpace's comment, I once worked for a (terrible) company where one of that tables was set up in such a way that rather than letting the DB auto increment the ID, the application took the last rows ID, added one to it and used that as the new ID. Unfortunately, about once a week duplicate IDs were inserted bringing the application crashing to a halt..
    – James T
    Oct 26 '16 at 14:16
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    @dan1111 You never write bugs in the application, right?
    – user253751
    Oct 26 '16 at 19:40
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    @DavidPacker I might agree, however once you have multiple clients accessing the database, you can only enforce constraints in the database. Unless, that is, you start locking tables wholesale instead of by rows, with the performance hit that carries.
    – Iker
    Oct 27 '16 at 7:16

The constraints should lie within your database, as (with the best will in the world), your application will not be the only thing to ever access this database.

At some point, there may need to be a scripted fix within the database, or you may need to migrate data from one table to another on deployment.

Additionally you may get other requirements e.g. "Big customer X really needs this excel sheet of data imported into our application database this afternoon", where you will not have the luxury of adapting your application code to suit when a dirty SQL script will get it done in time.

This is where database level integrity will save your bacon.

Additionally, picture the developer who takes your role at this company after you leave and is then tasked with making database changes.

Will he hate you if there are no FK constraints within the database so that he can tell what relationships a table has before he changes it? (Clue, the answer is yes)

  • 33
    Oh brother. I can't tell you how many times I've had to explain to people that a database has more than one client! Even if right now there is only one client and only one avenue for data to enter the system, designing your application and schema based on this assumption is the best way for Future Yoshi to hate Past Yoshi. Oct 26 '16 at 12:46
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    @nikonyrh I wouldn't be doing that. The constraints are there so that applications can rely on consistent data. To disable FK 'just to get it in' is madness.
    – Paddy
    Oct 27 '16 at 7:10
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    Agreed. Also, even if your application is the only client, you could have different versions of your application attempting to enforce slightly different constraints. Usually, hilarity ensues (well, not really. It's more like 'chaos and utter frustration' than 'hilarity').
    – Iker
    Oct 27 '16 at 7:18
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    I can absolutely attest to this. In my case I was stuck on MyISAM which does not actually support foreign keys, so I ended up with 250GB of data with integrity enforced by the application. When it came to start pruning data to get the backlog to a more manageable size, and when it became clear that the application itself wasn't going to be able to handle this at all, chaos ensued. I don't know why I'm using the past tense; this is still happening now and the problem (two years on) still has yet to be resolved. *sniff* Oct 27 '16 at 15:25
  • 1
    I would argue that a decent code base should make it easy to write a one-off script using the persistence layer from your application at least as quickly as to write raw SQL. 'Modifying your application's code' should never be necessary for one-off scripts. Oct 27 '16 at 20:58

You should have relations in the database.

As the other answer notes, performance of constraint checking will be far better inside that database than inside your application. Database constraint checks are one of the things that databases are good at.

If you ever need additional flexibility - e.g. your noted cross database references - then you can remove the constraints deliberately and with consideration. Having consistency within your database means that you have the option of modifying those constraints, and certainty of referential integrity.

  • 1
    True. I should have said that performance of constraint checking will be better handled in the database than in the application. Oct 26 '16 at 7:50
  • We no longer live in one back-end <-> one front-end world.
  • Most solutions involve a web front-end, a mobile front-end, a batch-front-end, and iPad front-end, etc.
  • Database engines already have thousands of tested lines of code optimized to enforce referential integrity.

Can you really afford writing and testing referential integrity enforcing code when you have domain problem solving code to write?

  • 2
    "We no longer live in one back-end <-> one front-end world." Did we ever? A few years ago, I worked on a database system that had programs written in at least two dozen different languages accessing it. Some of the programs had their first release in the 1970s. Oct 28 '16 at 14:35

If you don't validate your data integrity, constraints, relationships etc. at the database level that means it is much easier for anyone with production database access (through any other client including a DB access tool) to mess up your data.

It is great practice to enforce the strictest possible data integrity at the database level. Trust me, this will save you enormous headaches over time in any non-trivial system. You will also pick up application logic errors or business requirement errors and inconsistencies faster if careful thought is put into this.

As a side note to this, design your database in a way that is as normalized and atomic as possible. No "God" tables. Spend a lot of effort designing your database to be as simple as possible, ideally with many small tables that are individually very well defined, with a single responsibility and carefully validated on all columns. The database is the last guardian of your data integrity. It represents the Keep of the Castle.


Most people are essentially saying "yes, in general thou shalt always define the relations in the database". But if disciplines in computer science were so easy, we would be called "Software Manual Readers" instead of "Software Engineers". I do actually agree that the constraints should go in the database, unless there is a good reason they shouldn't, so let me just provide a couple reasons that might be considered good in certain situations:

Duplicate Code

Sometimes a certain amount of functionality that could be handled by the database will naturally exist in application code. If adding something like constraints to the database would be redundant, it might be better not to duplicate the functionality, because you are violating DRY principles, and you might worsen the juggling act of keeping the database and application code in sync.


If your database is already doing what it needs to do without using advanced features, you might want to evaluate where your time, money, and effort should be placed. If adding constraints would prevent a catastrophic failure and thus save your company a lot of money, then it is probably worth it. If you are adding constraints that should hold, but are already guaranteed to never be violated, you are wasting time and polluting your code base. Guaranteed is the operative word here.


This is normally not a good reason but in some cases you might have a certain performance requirement. If application code can implement a certain functionality in a faster way than the database, and you need the extra performance, you might need to implement the feature in application code.


Somewhat related to efficiency. Sometimes you need extremely fine grained control about how a feature is implemented, and sometimes having the database handle it hides it behind a black box that you need to open.

Closing Points

  • Databases are written in code. There's nothing magic they do that you can't do in your own code.
  • Nothing is free. Constraints, relations, etc. all use CPU cycles.
  • People in the NoSQL world get along just fine without traditional Relational features. In MongoDB for example, the structure of JSON documents is good enough to support an entire database.
  • Blind and ignorant use of advanced database features can't guarantee any benefits. You might accidentally make something work only to break it later.
  • You asked a very general question without listing specific requirements or constraints. The real answer to your question is "it depends".
  • You didn't specify if this was an enterprise scale problem. Other answers are talking about things like customers and data integrity, but sometimes those things aren't important.
  • I'm assuming you are talking about a traditional SQL Relational database.
  • My perspective comes from having moved away from using tons of constraints and foreign keys in small (up to 50 tables) projects, and not noticing any drawbacks.

The last thing I will say is that you will know if you shouldn't be placing the functionality in the database. If you're not sure, you are probably better off using the database features, because they usually work really well.

  • 1
    If people downvote well-thought answers because it disagrees with their dogma, the SE StackExchange becomes a worse place. Oct 27 '16 at 22:57
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    This answer's premise that there are occasions where you might leave constraints out of the DB is valid, but the explanation is poor and misleads. While I concur that the database isn't the best place for some constraints, no relational database should go without basic key and referential integrity constraints. None. There is zero exception to this. Every database is going to need primary keys, and the vast majority will need foreign keys. Those should always be enforced by the database, even if it duplicates logic. The fact that you gloss over this is why I downvoted.
    – jpmc26
    Oct 27 '16 at 23:57
  • 1
    "Databases are written in code. There's nothing magic they do that you can't do in your own code.", no, you can't enforce referential integrity in application code (and if you don't need to enforce it, why are you using a database server at all?). It's not about what code can do, it is about where it can be done.
    – hyde
    Oct 28 '16 at 5:31

As always, there are many answers. For me I found a simple rule (well it only works for a model-centric approach). Usually, I only focus on the different layers of applications.

If the model consists of several entities and there are dependencies between the entities, the persistance layer should reflect those dependencies with its possibilities. So if you're using a RDBMS, then you should also use foreign keys. Reason is simple. That way the data is always valid structurewise.

Any instance doing work on this persistance layer can rely on it. I'm assuming, that you're encapsulating this layer via interface (service). So here is the point where the design ends and the real world begins.

Looking at your points, especially cross-database references. In that case, yes there should not be a reference implemented in the RDBMS itself, but in the service. But before following this way, wouldn't it be better to consider this already during the design?

Means, if I know already, that there are parts which need to be stored in a different DB, then I can put them already there and define it as seperate model. Right?

You're also pointing out that implementing this in code is more flexible. Right, but doesn't that sound like you're dealing with an incomplete design? Ask yourself, why do you need more flexibility?

The performance issue, due to the integrity checks in DB is not real. The RDBMS can check such things much faster than any implementation by you. Why? Well, you have to deal with the media disruption, the RDBMS doesn't. And it can optimize such checks by using its statistics a.s.o.

So you see, it all comes back to design. Of course you can say now, but what if an unknown requirement is appearing, a game changer? Yes it might happen, but such changes should be designed and planned a.s.o.. ;o)


You have some very good answers but some more points

Data integrity is what a database is designed to do

Doing proper concurrency of like a FK delete at the application level would be horrendous

Expertise in data integrity is with a DBA

At the program level you insert, update, bulk update, bulk insert, bulk delete ...
Thin client, thick client, mobile client ....
Data integrity is not the expertise of a programmer - lots of duplicate code and someone will mess it up

Say you get hacked - you are in trouble either way but a hacker can do a lot of damage via a small hole if there is no integrity protection at the database

You may need to manipulate data directly via SQL or TSQL
No one is going to remember all the data rules


Your question doesn't make sense: if you can change the database, it's code, if you can't change the database, you'll have to create your constraints elsewhere.

A database which you can change is every bit as much code as any line of ruby, javascript, c# or ada.

The question about where to put a constraint in your system should boil down to reliability, cost and ease of development.


There are tons of good answers here. I'll add that if you have an app written in language Y, you can create database-constraint-like code in Y. And then someone wants to access your database using language Z, you'll have to write the same code again. God help you if the implementations aren't exactly the same. Or when a knowledgeable business user connects to your database using Microsoft Access.

My experience tells me that when people don't want to use database constraints, it's because they're actually trying to do something the wrong way. For example, they're trying to bulk load data, and they want to leave not-null columns null, for a while. They intend to "fix that later" because the situation that made the not-null constraint critical "can't possibly happen in this case." Another example could be when they're trying to shoe-horn two different types of data into the same table.

More experienced people will take a step back and find a solution that does not involve attempting to bypass a constraint. The solution could simply be the constraint is no longer proper because the business changed, of course.

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