In use case modelling, if I have functions that have to be done by the system itself (without actors), how can I represent them?

For example, sending SMS message, compute bus route, or notify someone when a change occur.

  • What triggers would there be to cause the system to perform those tasks? – Bart van Ingen Schenau Nov 27 '16 at 10:27
  • when registering in the system an sms message will be sent to the user. each bus has a predefined bus route calculated by the system based on students assigned to that bus, and every time a student change or absent, a new route will be computed. – Arwa Nov 27 '16 at 10:36

A function performed by the system is not a use case. It is an action which is part of a use case. A use case is some added value it's primary actor gets when applying the use case.


You can represent them as use cases of sub-function level and performed by the system as primary actor.

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