Generally speaking no.*
If you try to read or write to memory that doesn't exist, a variety of things may happen depending on your platform.
For a typical desktop computer, your actual physical memory is abstracted behind a virtual memory layer. When your program tries to access a memory location, the OS and virtual memory mapper maps that location to it's true location, which might not even be in actual memory at the time. If you try to access a location outside of what has been allocated to you, the OS will know about it and it will drop the hammer on your process.
If you are using a platform that doesn't have that memory protection, or are writing OS kernel modules, what happens will depend on the platform. Reading non-existent memory locations might return 0, might return random electrical noise, it might yet raise some sort of interrupt, you'll have to read the datasheet to know. Same goes for writing.
For memory, there isn't really much risk of "sending electricity to specific areas of your computer" that isn't intended. When a USB port has nothing plugged into it, the computer doesn't jam 500mA of current out the port regardless. The same goes for memory, electricity can only be sent somewhere if there is something to send it to.
There are some situations where you could cause physical trouble by writing to ram 'using pointers'. Some hardware platforms map peripheral registers or IOs to locations in memory. If you happen to be writing to that memory, you could cause interactions with the real world to cause damage, such as fidgeting with power or temperature controls, turning on or off devices connected to the computer, etc. This mode of accessing stuff is typically with stuff like microcontrollers, where you'll know better than to be reading and writing to random memory locations.
*Much of this is simplified, if you want the raw details, check out https://electronics.stackexchange.com/