What are the techniques and technologies that people use to store spatial data over time that performs fast when querying?

For example, you have a map where people add data at certain locations over time. How would you implement fast querying for the data available on a certain date (that date and before) or exactly on that date?

Collecting the data I understand but I don't know how to make perform well when querying? Should the raw data be post processed based on the expected queries?

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    can you be more specific? which database? how many data items do you have? how do you define "perform well"? Do you know what a database-index is? what have you tried that does not match your needs? – k3b Mar 13 '17 at 16:37
  • Can you use a quadtree, and store priority queues in it? – Mike Dunlavey Mar 14 '17 at 0:05