I've seen this in C#, Hack, and now Kotlin: await or an equivalent operation can only be performed in special "async" contexts. Return values from these are, to borrow Hack's terminology, "awaitable" in turn, so the special async-ness of some low-level async system function call bubbles to the top unless it transformed to a synchronous operation. This partitions the codebase into synchronous and asynchronous ecosystems. After working for a while with async-await in Hack, however, I'm beginning to question the need. Why does the calling scope need to know that it's calling an async function? Why can't async functions look like sync functions that just happen to throw control somewhere else on occasion?

I've found all of the distinctiveness of async code I've written to come from three consequences:

  1. Race conditions are possible when two parallel coroutines share common state
  2. Time information about the transient/unresolved state might be embedded in async objects, which can enforce certain ordering rules
  3. The underlying work of a coroutine can be mutated by other coroutines (e.g. cancellation)

I'll concede the first one is tempting. Annotating an ecosystem as async screams "beware: race conditions might live here!" However, attention to race conditions can be completely localized to combining functions (e.g. (Awaitable<Tu>, Awaitable<Tv>, ...) -> Awaitable<(Tu, Tv, ...)>) since without them, two coroutines cannot execute in parallel. Then, the problem becomes very specific: "make sure all terms of this combining function do not race." This is beneficial to clarity. So long as it's understood that combining functions are useful for async code (but obviously not limited to it; async code is a superset of sync code), and there are a finite number of canonical ones (language constructs as they often are), I feel that this better communicates the risks of race conditions by localizing their sources.

The other two are a matter of language design by how the lowest-level async objects are represented (Hack's WaitHandles for instance). Any mutation of a high-level async object is necessarily confined to a set of operations against the underlying low-level async objects that come from system calls. Whether or not the calling scope is synchronous is irrelevant, since mutability and the effects of mutation are purely functions of that underlying state at a single point in time. Aggregating them into a nondescript async object does not make the behavior any clearer — if anything, to me, it obscures it with the illusion of determinism. This is all moot when the scheduler is opaque (as in Hack and, from what I gather, Kotlin as well) where the information and mutators are hidden anyways.

Otherwise, the result is all the same for the calling scope: it eventually gets a value or an Exception and does its synchronous thing. Am I missing a part of the design thinking behind this rule? Alternatively, are there examples where async function contracts are indistinguishable from synchronous ones?

  • 6
    Recommended reading: What Color is Your Function? (at the risk of spoiling its title, it's directly related to your question).
    – Andres F.
    Mar 22, 2017 at 19:47
  • 1
    Possible duplicate of async+await == sync?
    – gnat
    Mar 22, 2017 at 19:59
  • Also worth reading: Eliding Async and Await and Async/Await FAQ
    – Doval
    Mar 22, 2017 at 20:21
  • 2
    because async "functions" are not functions. they're totally different models of computation.
    – user223083
    Mar 22, 2017 at 20:57
  • "sync" v. "async" is not the real issue; it's functional v interactional computation.
    – user223083
    Mar 22, 2017 at 21:08

3 Answers 3


The reason you need to mark methods as async in C# in order to use await as a keyword inside of them is that C# was already a well-established language by the time this was added as a new feature, and it's reasonable to assume that there was code out there that used await as an identifier, which would have broken under the new system.

By introducing a new syntax that was never valid before, (methods marked as async in the method declaration,) the C# compiler team could ensure that all the existing code continued to work as usual, and the use of await as a pseudo-keyword would only come into play when the coder explicitly asked for it in code written for the new feature.

Other languages probably did it that way for similar reasons, or "because that's how C# did it."

  • await existed before async?
    – concat
    Mar 23, 2017 at 0:53
  • @concat It was possible to use it as an identifier before async was around. For example, there may well have been a class with a method named await(). Any code that tried to call this would have broken if they had unilaterally decided that await is now a keyword. Since the C# team didn't want to break existing code, they added the async keyword to set it up so that this wouldn't happen. Mar 23, 2017 at 1:04
  • Ah okay, sorry, I misunderstood. Did the C# team describe this decision online anywhere?
    – concat
    Mar 23, 2017 at 3:50
  • I'm also don't quite follow how the async annotation fixes the await naming conflict. Depending on the ambiguity of await (...) (emphasis on the space), isn't that either still a problem, or not a problem to begin with?
    – concat
    Mar 23, 2017 at 3:52
  • 2
    @concat See blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/ericlippert/2010/11/11/…, where Eric Lippert, from the C# compiler team (at the time) described why the async modifier is needed for compatibility reasons. Mar 23, 2017 at 9:07

I think you're reading too much into this. async changes the return type of a function. I don't know how or if C# denotes that beyond the async, but in Scala (and I believe Kotlin but I'm not as familiar with it) your return type literally goes from an A to a Future[A]. Obviously, that means the calling context must generate different code to retrieve the return value.

It wouldn't be difficult in Scala to add implicit conversions to go from an A to a Future[A] where a Future[A] is expected in the calling context, by just wrapping it in an async {} block. Likewise, it would be trivial to add implicit conversions to go the other direction by wrapping in an Await.result call. Other languages could easily do this conversion in the compiler.

This would be a mistake though, because you're throwing away all the help your type checker gives you in writing asynchronous code, and in precisely controlling the point at which you want it to become synchronous. Your compiler forces you to keep all the async code in async blocks, so when you accidentally go synchronous deeper than you intended in the call stack it can give you a helpful error message. With weaker types comes weaker protections.

In other words, it's basically the same reason you don't want your compiler to automatically convert strings to integers. When dealing with something as error prone as asynchronous code, you want your compiler to give you as much help as possible.

  • 1
    C#'s async annotation is for the compiler; it's not part of the interface. The important part is the Task return type. Mar 24, 2017 at 11:59
  • My impression is that most asynchronous code only cares about the return value and a hope that the work executes faster in parallel. I wonder if the operations that depend on the timing of a Future, like callbacks, could be polymorphic on non-future types too and just degenerate to synchronous behavior there. Couldn't it be more expressive too if operations that mutate the timing of a Future could only operate on the base-level async objects from the system? I'd prefer the explicitness of that anyways.
    – concat
    Mar 24, 2017 at 14:43

Async and await are just syntactic sugar. You don't have to use them, but the code is cleaner and more readable if you do.

When you mark a function as async the compiler injects a bunch of additional code. You could have written that code yourself, but it always follows the same pattern and can be distracting when reading the code.

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