Actually, that is not true.
Yes, but nothing has changed.
No, it hasn't. There was an effort of getting types into the language in the ill-fated ECMAScript 4, but that was (rightfully) abandoned, and it is unlikely that ECMAScript will get types in the near future. TypeScript is a different language, precisely because ECMAScript won't get types in the near future.
lower level functions(devices, array buffers, WebGL, Bluetooth, etc.),
I am not sure what you mean by that. Yes, ECMAScript is a good language for writing compilers in, but that is because of its Scheme and Self heritage, not because of a "convergence with Java".
other areas(Node.js, v8/Rhino outside of the web).
The main difference between the two is that ECMAScript has a very small standard library. This makes it easy to adapt it to different niches, but you have to do the "adapting" first. (E.g. Ryan Dahl writing his own I/O library for Node.js.)
Java, OTOH, has a very large standard library. This allows it to be applied to different niches without adapting, but you always have to carry around the 90% that you're not using, and it always doesn't quite exactly fit.