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In Automotive SPICE 3, there seems to be an overlap in "Software Requirements" and "Software Architecture" about where are software interfaces defined. Can someone clarify this with a practical example?

See the overlap:

Section "4.4.1. SWE.1 Software Requirements Analysis" of this ASPICE 3 reads:

As a result of successful implementation of this process:

1) the software requirements to be allocated to the software elements of the system and their interfaces are defined;

Section "4.4.2. SWE.2 Software Architectural Design" reads:

As a result of successful implementation of this process:

2) the software requirements are allocated to the elements of the software;

3) the interfaces of each software element are defined;

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I believe you are misinterpreting the first statement. The result of Software Requirements Analysis is that software requirements that will be allocated to the software elements and the software requirements that will be allocated to the interfaces are defined, but the requirements are not allocated and the interfaces may not be fully defined beyond what they must accomplish (their functional and non-functional requirements). The result of Software Architectural Design is that the requirements are actually allocated and the interfaces. In Software Detailed Design and Unit Construction, you design and construct the stuff behind the interfaces.

In a document-driven environment, you would have Interface Control Documents for existing interfaces between components or Interface Requirements Documents for interfaces that don't yet exist at the end of Software Requirements Analysis. Every interface would be documented in an Interface Control Document at the completion of Software Architectural Design.

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