Managing dependencies and dynamic libraries is not a new problem. In your scenario, the usage of Docker is unrelated to that problem as you are only using Docker to bundle your build toolchain (i.e., compilers).
The environment where your application is executed will need all dependencies. However, that does not mean you need to pollute the host system.
For example, it may be possible to execute the application within a Docker container that provides the dependencies. However, that is often not suitable as Docker strongly prefers immutable images, and may impose an unsuitable amount of isolation.
Of course other containerization tech exists as well. This may be appropriate if your software requires specially configured services/daemons. But you may not want to deploy via containers e.g. because users would have to install container management software, because images may require excessive storage, or because deploying container images makes it difficult to apply security updates to dependencies independently of your software.
Using static linking may be a very convenient approach, when possible. Note that this may not work if the dependencies not only encompass libraries but also other resources (fonts, images, databases, external services). This may also affect software licensing, in particular if you have LGPL dependencies.
It may be convenient to declare all dependencies, and use an external dependency management system such as APT to resolve these. This can be very user-friendly, but can also imply dependencies that you cannot control. If a dependency is not provided, you can package it in a way that installs under
It is not necessary to install dependencies globally. If you configure your dependencies to install under a local prefix (and set
LD_LIBRARY_PATH suitably) then you can install dependencies within your project directory. You can then deploy them together with your app. Crucially, this allows you to easily multiple versions of your dependencies alongside each other. (Re-)installing dependencies should then be part of your normal build process.
These strategies are not exclusive but can be mixed and matched as necessary. For example, requiring that libstdc++ in a suitable version is installed on the host system might be OK, but you may want to link other dependencies statically. Or if you have a deployment script that can install dependencies locally, that script could also be used in the Dockerfile of the build container.
In the end, which of these variants is preferable depends on how your software will be installed and used. Anything is potentially fine, as long as everything can be scripted.