We are receiving realtime data from over a 1000 sensors, each of which sends a data point every 10 seconds in average, which is amounting to about 1 million rows of data every day. Our system gives users the ability to select any sensor and a date range and download the data points as an Excel file.
We have seen that our users are mostly interested in data that is less than 30 days old. Data that is more than 30 days old is most probably already been downloaded. Only about 1% of our data retrieval requests come for data that is more than 30 days old. However, we cannot say that this data is totally useless, because our users sometimes want to download data that is even more than a year old. Deleting old data is not a possibility.
Currently we are using MySQL database to store the data, and all data is being stored into a single table. The table now has over 60 million rows. We use SSD and we have the right indices due to which the data retrieval still happens considerably faster.
An example database query we use to select every minute data is:
data_value AS value, param_id AS param_id,
data_timestamp AS ts,
WHERE param_id in (?)
AND data_timestamp >= ? AND data_timestamp <= ?
GROUP BY DATE(data_timestamp), HOUR(data_timestamp),
ORDER BY data_timestamp ASC
Currently, this query takes less than 5 seconds for retrieving data that is more than 30 days old for a specific sensor.
As more data is stored into this table, it is going to get bigger, maybe up to 2 billion rows in the next 1 year (we are also adding more sensors everyday). I do not know how the query performance would be at that stage. To me, storing all this data in a MySQL database doesn't seem to be right, because it is accessed very rarely, and having data that is more than 4 months old indexed, seems unnecessary.
One approach I thought of is to have only last 30 days of data in MySQL, and move old data to flat files with a folder structure like
/old_data/%YEAR%/%MONTH%/%DATE%/%PARAM_ID%.dat. This way our data size is not going to become unmanageable but at the same time data is still indexed in the form of flat files on disk.
Is the current approach good to scale? Does moving old data to flat files help or not? Is storing all data in a single table correct? Do we need to change our database engine itself? Please give your thoughts on this architecture. Thank you very much in advance!