I'm not sure why people have downvoted you, other than there is a well documented and easy way to go about this.
Docker images are layered, and you can build all your essential-for-all-images packages into one new docker image of our own making, and then extend from that.
For example, when you write your docker file, your first line will be
What you can do is then create a new image to use in your "FROM" in all future containers that you write, that will have this built in. The trivial example is to build a container something like
apt-get install python
And then build this image as
my-image-with-python-installed or whatever works.
Then, in the later container where you want to install your own unique-to-each-container stuff, you write your Dockerfile as such:
The documentation on Docker's page is a bit low level as they want you to build the smallest base images you can, but you can find it here: https://docs.docker.com/develop/develop-images/baseimages/
Your documentation for the FROM command comes in here https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/builder/#from but you'll need to build your base image first, but there is loads of articles out there on how to do that.
It's very common to have a base image stored in a repository, especially if the contents don't change. This way you can access it from different build machines and don't have to rebuild it often if at all, setting up small local repositories is very easy, and many artifact management tools have this feature built in as well.
If, however, you're building images on the fly but they all still have a common base it isn't necessary to store that in a repository - you just build the base image first and then as its local to that build machine all other images built on that machine will be able to access it.