OP here. For posterity, I wanted to add what my ultimate solution to this problem was. I will keep the best answer checked, because it's actually the best answer when things go smoothly.
First, I tried the selected answer from Doc Brown: https://softwareengineering.stackexchange.com/a/370419/291998
svnadmin dump command failed about halfway into the dump (about 1 day into the dump), with a corrupted revision. This was a consistent point of failure. Attempts to bypass this specific reference, through careful use of the revision flags to svnadmin dump, I was able to produce a full dump, however, attempts to filter binary files out of the 73 GB dump file were met with additional frustration. I did manage to make some dumps of particular branches, but this was useless to me for a full migration.
Ultimately, I ended up using git-svn to do this:
nohup git svn init https://myurl.com/projects/myproject/ --no-minimize-url --no-metadata --stdlayout &
git-svn on such a large repository was not without issues. It regularly choked during the processing. Fortunately,
git svn fetch could be issued to resume to conversion at each stopping point. I wrote a small wrapper script that would continue issuing that command upon failure.
Having said all of this, git-svn is not recommended for this task, see this article: http://esr.ibiblio.org/?p=6778
But this was ultimately the only tool I could get to work. For stripping the binary files, I used BFG repo cleaner https://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/