Just got off a retro call where developers expressed concern around the integration of their stories into the master branch each sprint. The developers all code within their own branch and towards the end of the sprint they all merge into one master branch.

Then, one developer (usually the same one) is left with the task of making sure everything has integrated well with other dev's code (Most of the changes are on the same page. For example, a data display story, data filtering story, and a SLA indicator).

How can we reduce this burden and make it easier for our code to merge together? From my perspective, having the PO or SM prioritize the stories in a more efficient way so we don't have these sort of dependencies in the same sprint may solve some of the issues. How does everyone else tackle this? Or is this just part of the process?

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    Don't you have a development branch where continuous integration is done? – Kayaman Jun 18 '18 at 13:43
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    I'm with Kayaman here, the best practice for this is to implement continuous integration. – RandomUs1r Jun 18 '18 at 16:44
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    Happy Merge Day! Any time your problem is too similar to something on The Daily WTF, you know you're in trouble. – user3067860 Jun 18 '18 at 17:06
  • Merge early, merge often: { write smallest test code that will fail (red), write smallest production code that will pass (green), refactor, retest, merge } while not finished. – ctrl-alt-delor Jun 18 '18 at 18:14
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    First check-in Wins! Never be last! :-) – ChuckCottrill Jun 20 '18 at 0:10

If you are using Git, each developer would be pulling from the develop branch into their own feature branch so that they ensure they don't go too far from the current baseline. They can do that daily, so that tasks that take more than a couple days stay in sync and merge issues are resolved while they are still small.

When the developer is done with their work, they create a pull request. When approved, that gets merged into the develop branch.

The develop branch should always have working code, and be ready for release at any time. When you actually make a release, you merge develop into master and tag it.

If you have a good Continuous Integration Server, then it will build each branch when changes are checked in--particularly for pull requests. Some build servers integrate with your Git server to auto-approve or disapprove a pull request if the build fails or the automated tests fail. This is another way to find potential integration bugs.

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    The important part (which is only implied in your answer) is that the branches should be merged as soon as they are ready, typically with only 1 – 5 commits, and not only at the end of the sprint. One branch per feature/story, not one branch per developer. That requires that stories are truly tiny, i.e. take at most two days. – amon Jun 18 '18 at 14:12
  • @amon, agreed. Added the words "feature branch", but trying to keep this answer fairly small. There's plenty of good articles that go into more depth on this process. – Berin Loritsch Jun 18 '18 at 14:15
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    Don't stay isolated on your own branch. That's how merge hell starts. Use mainline development, isolate work-in-progress behind feature toggles or other run-time configuration. – Rob Crawford Jun 18 '18 at 16:28
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    @Zibbobz My team uses explicit "Feature Branches" for those, which are basically treated like the develop branch is, but only for pull requests and commits that relate to that change. Generally, depending on how long it has to remain separate, every few days someone will merge the changes from develop into the feature and resolve any issues. That way the branches are as similar as possible when it comes time to merge. As a note, this is only for really big breaking changes – reffu Jun 18 '18 at 16:28
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    "isolate work-in-progress behind feature toggles or other run-time configuration" You've just avoided merge hell by going into config hell instead. "Merge hell" is only a problem for one developer at a time and easily avoided simply by synching up regularly, having tons of ephemeral configuration is hell for all future developers forever. – Cubic Jun 19 '18 at 9:09

I worked in a team where we struggled with the same problem. We found that the less time we had before integrating, the less difficult it became. I know most people teaching continuous integration talk about committing every few minutes - we probably actually committed every hour or so.

We also found that just building wasn't enough. We needed a good test coverage level in order to make sure that we didn't accidentally break each others' code.

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    This is my experience as well. It doesn't really matter how often you commit, but once committed quickly integration/merging the commit saves a lot of effort down the line. I once was on a project where we had three diverging development branches that each had months worths of work. Merging them was Not Fun. I learned a lot from that mistake :) – amon Jun 18 '18 at 14:17
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    Yes -- this is what "continuous integration" means! You're continuously integrating your changes with the other developers' changes! – Rob Crawford Jun 18 '18 at 16:28
  • @Rob, agreed. My statement wasn't meant to suggest that continuous integration isn't, well, continuous. Just that we didn't quite make the ideal and still saw a lot of benefits in getting close to it. – Daniel Jun 18 '18 at 16:56
  • Keep your branches short-lived (it sounds like you're already doing this).
  • Let your test results speak for themselves.
  • Don't wait for the end of the sprint.

You don't even need to subscribe to TDD for this one. All you need are some tests which prove that your developers' features are working correctly. These could include Unit Tests and Integration Tests but will ideally be a couple of automated end-to-end tests of the critical features. Standard regression pack stuff.

Then, once your merge has been completed, you can check the automation test report together and verify that everything has been integrated successfully.

I agree with one of the other answers where the author stated Git PRs would solve this problem by getting each developer to merge their own work.

One other point which I believe is important enough to leave until the last paragraph. I suggest that you run manual tests over your nightly builds, rather than waiting until the end of the sprint. Developers should merge in as soon as the feature is complete so that it can be integrated, deployed, and tested as soon as possible.



Depending on your language and what files you're editing, it may not make sense for each developer to edit them on their own branch. For example, in C# I've found it's best for only one person to edit any UI designer files at a time. These are autogenerated files, and so code is sometimes moved around for no apparent reason - and this wreaks havoc on most merging tools.

This means that some stories may block other stories until the UI work is done. And/Or, a new story is created to just layout the UI, with the other stories implementing functionality. Or, maybe one developer does all the UI work while others implement the functionality of that UI.

On a related note, if you know multiple stories will all be touching the same file(s), you may just want to avoid working on them all at the same time. Don't pull them all into the same sprint, or don't start working on them all until one or more are done.

  • Honestly, the version control tool in use is more critical to successful branching and merging. Even with C# code and the presumably WinForms or WebForms code you must be working with typically don't change that much. If they are, perhaps you need to do some mockups before playing with code. XAML based UIs are just as stable as regular code and intermediate code is not checked in. – Berin Loritsch Jun 18 '18 at 15:08
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    @BerinLoritsch WinForms designer code can indeed change a lot, even with small visual changes. I've found that the lines of code themselves are the same, but the ordering is vastly different - especially when multiple developers are making edits at the same time. Maybe it is an issue of VCS tool (we've used several, maybe we're just using the wrong ones), but for us it's much much simpler to alter our process slightly. – mmathis Jun 18 '18 at 15:15
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    @BerinLoritsch I have to second mmathis here at least for win forms (never used web forms). The winforms UI designer loves to randomly reorder all the code in the designer file in response to a trivial change somewhere on the form. Unless you manually undo the reorderings prior to each commit (something that can easily be 10 or 15 minutes on a complex form) the history of the designer file is absolutely useless, and if 2 people are working on the form's UI at once will result in a merge conflict from hell. Locking is generally a terrible option, but with winforms really is the least evil. – Dan Neely Jun 18 '18 at 20:25
  • @DanNeely, That's just one of the reasons our team migrated away from WinForms code. Another reason is that the designer is terribly fragile, and some of our complex forms couldn't be edited visually anyway. We ended up having to make changes directly in the codebehind--probably why I don't recall too much upheaval there. That and our users working with high density displays really pushed us to WPF. A painful process with a high learning curve, but a nice reward at the end of it. Most stories in the backlog were for different parts of the app anyway. – Berin Loritsch Jun 18 '18 at 20:30
  • @BerinLoritsch same here. Win forms paid a big part of my bills for most of a decade at my previous job, but I'll be quite happy to never touch it again in the future. – Dan Neely Jun 18 '18 at 20:32

Another possible approach to avoid late and large merges are feature flags: you protect your changes with a (ideally dynamically) configurable flag that prevents them from becoming active before intended.

This allows you to merge your changes early back into either master or your joint development branch without breaking anything. Other developers can then merge these changes back into their feature branches (or rebase their branches accordingly).

As the other answers have already pointed out this should be combined with a continuous integration solution.

Feature flags have additional benefits (for example, they make it easy to do A/B tests). See this article by Martin Fowler for more information.


We are following an approach of separate development branch for each feature, and then we are merging the branches to a QA branch for testing in integration testing environment.

Once regression and integration testing is completed, we easily move the features which are ready to go, to the release branch.

If all goes well, we merge release branch back to master branch.


To put it simply, committing and merging often reduces the window of opportunity for merge conflicts and will greatly reduce conflicts. The other part is indeed planning by the lead, which can further ensure that work flows smoothly.

The other answers give some great insight regarding best practices for commits and simply by following those you'll probably reduce the vast majority of your merge issues. More merges is almost certainly a necessity, but for a smaller team, your branch-per-person approach probably works well enough. Of course, it doesn't hurt (much) to get into more extensible practices though!

However, no one seems to have addressed one of your most significant questions--what to do when you're all touching the same areas of code. This is where it's useful to have a lead who is familiar with the code base and can recognize dependencies of different tasks. If they don't orchestrate the timing of work and commits, you'll likely end up with merge conflicts and line by line resolution. Organizing the tasks\timing is much more difficult with a larger team, but with a small team its possible to identify these conflicting tasks. The lead could then even shift all the related tasks to the same engineer, to avoid the conflict altogether.

protected by gnat Jun 19 '18 at 14:07

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