If you see in wiki, they said,
Model–View–Controller is a software design pattern commonly used for developing user interfaces which divides the related program logic into three interconnected elements.
That means It works only for user-interactive applications.
If an application doesn't interact with users, what architectural pattern(s) is used?
It depends on the detail requirements of you application. For example, a robotic system can use Sense-Plan-Act pattern on the other hands a backend server can use Adapter pattern. Interpreter pattern can be used to interpret transferring messages over backend modules. Blackboard pattern can be used for non deterministic control strategy for backends and so on.
Blackboard pattern: The blackboard pattern is a behavioral design pattern that provides a computational framework for the design and implementation of systems that integrate large and diverse specialized modules, and implement complex, non-deterministic control strategies.
Adapter pattern: The adapter pattern is a software design pattern (also known as wrapper, an alternative naming shared with the decorator pattern) that allows the interface of an existing class to be used as another interface. It is often used to make existing classes work with others without modifying their source code.
Interpreter pattern: The interpreter pattern is a design pattern that specifies how to evaluate sentences in a language. The basic idea is to have a class for each symbol (terminal or nonterminal) in a specialized computer language. The syntax tree of a sentence in the language is an instance of the composite pattern and is used to evaluate (interpret) the sentence for a client.