State of the union:

C# Events/Eventhandlers are:

  • blocking
  • throwing Exceptions
  • sequential
  • deterministic executed in order
  • MulticastDelegates
  • a handler is always dependent on the behavior of the handlers registered earlier

Actually they are pretty close to regular function pointers. Despite beeing a sequence of them.

If any event-subscriber is doing evil things (blocking, throwing Exceptions):

  • the event invoker is blocked (in the worst case indefinitely)
  • the event invoker has to deal with unpredictable exceptions
  • the internal sequential eventhandler calling will break at the first exception
  • any EventHandler internally stored after the failing Eventhandler will not be executed

C# Example on .Net Fiddle

I always thought of c# events as an implementation of the publish-subcribe pattern.


This contradicts my intuition of publishing/subcriber semantics. Actually it seems to be the opposite.

If i publish a news/website/book/podcast/newsletter:

  • publishing is non-blocking (in relationship to the subscribers)
  • consuming is concurrent
  • reader/subscriber errors don't interfere with my publishing
  • reader/subscriber errors don't interfere with other readers/subscribers

Transfered to .Net this would mean: event.Invoke(...) leads to:

  • event.Invoke(...) is fire and forget
  • all subscriptions are dispatched to the thread-pool
  • and executed concurrent and independent of each other (not threadsafe though)
  • undeterministic order of execution
  • you might have to take care of threadsafety while accessing objects
  • one handler cannot "kill" the execution of other handlers

Other people seem to be confused too:

PS: I'm aware that this might be highly subjective. I guess there've been good reasons to do it this way.

  • Keep in mind that isn't because there is a pattern that does something kinda similar that the C# Events are using it, nor that because the C# events are doing something different they are bad. There are always an infinitude of ways of implementing each pattern out there.
    – T. Sar
    Feb 27, 2020 at 19:13
  • It might be worth noting that you can have async event handlers. It might also be worth noting that you can have custom event implementations (How to implement custom event accessors (C# Programming Guide) with an extra method to raise them). Also, events are meant to notify events. For your consumer-producer needs I suggest to have a look at the table in Reactive introduction.
    – Theraot
    Feb 27, 2020 at 19:35
  • 1
    My hope with the question was to gain better insight and understanding of the design decision and technical background. Which were given by @berin-loritsch and elippert. Short from elippert: “it isn’t wrong. It was designed this way.“ So it isn’t a message queue/bus like pub-sub implementation! This was my misinterpretation. Guided my the kinda similar naming and MSDN documentation which constantly uses publish and subscribe wording. docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/csharp/programming-guide/events/…
    – juwens
    Feb 27, 2020 at 21:03
  • @Theraot I’m aware of and used both: RX and custom event implementation as alternative to regular events.
    – juwens
    Feb 27, 2020 at 21:08

4 Answers 4


There seem to be two main thrusts to your critique:

  • Events are fragile in the face of hostile or buggy subscribers.
  • The publish-subscribe metaphor doesn't match your intuition.

Let's deal with the second point first. All metaphors in design patterns are analogies, not isomorphisms. The criticism is valid, but remember, the design was not motivated by a desire to match the intuitions entailed by the metaphor! The design was motivated by a desire to meet the needs of line-of-business developers at a reasonable cost.

The first point is the more important one. Events are indeed fragile in the face of hostile or buggy subscribers. There are some interesting attacks.

Consider for example the .NET 1.0 security model, which was designed to allow code of different trust levels to be "on the stack" at the same time, but "luring" attacks -- where low-trust code calls high-trust code to do something hostile -- are mitigated by stack walks. That is, when high-trust code attempts a dangerous act, all the code on the call stack must be sufficiently trusted, not just the high-trust code itself.

Now, what happens when low-trust code adds a delegate to a high-trust method as a handler of an event? When the event is triggered, the low-trust code is no longer on the stack, so the stack walk does not see it!

There are a great many ways that events may be used by hostile code to damage the user. Events were specifically not designed to mitigate these vulnerabilities. You, the developer, are responsible for writing code that ensures that only high-trust code is allowed to add an event handler, and that the handler is benign.

Your question then is "is the design wrong?" Well, the answer is that a design is wrong when it fails to achieve its design goals. Designing a system where events were robust in the face of hostile event handlers was explicitly a non-goal of the design process, so the design is not in that sense "wrong".

It is certainly possible to develop a publish-subscribe system that has the properties you want: asynchrony, isolation, robustness and so on. The default event system was not designed to have those properties. Rather, it was designed to make a checkbox turn green when you click a button. It succeeds at that goal extremely well.

Moreover, it is by no means clear that your preferences are "better" universally; they may only be better in your specific use cases. Let's look at one of them, for argument's sake. Is it good that an exception thrown by one handler prevents the execution of the next handler, or bad? You imply that it is bad, but examine the premises more carefully. Under what circumstances can we expect that a handler raises an unhandled exception?

  • The handler is hostile and attempting a denial of service attack.

In this situation is the right thing to do to keep on trying to execute more handler code that also might be attacks? Attacks that might be depending on whatever broken state has been produced that caused the crash?

  • The handler is benign but buggy and has crashed by accident

The handler is so buggy that it crashed, possibly leaving its own internal state inconsistent, and possibly losing user data. Is the right thing to do to run a second handler that might also depend on that internal state, and lose more user data?

  • The handler is benign and not buggy, and its action exposes a crashing bug in the event source.

The event source's internal data structures are so corrupted that they are throwing unexpected exceptions during event handling. Is the right thing to do to run more code?

If something unexpected has happened and the world is now in a dangerously unstable, unpredictable state, running more random code is almost always the wrong thing to do. Sometimes isolating crashes just keeps a broken system producing harm alive longer to produce more harm! The right thing to do when an event handler throws an unexpected exception is to shut the entire system down, stopping further damage, logging the problem, and encouraging the development team to patch the buggy, crashing code.

  • 1
    Thanks for the insight and the details. Very interesting!
    – juwens
    Feb 27, 2020 at 19:14
  • 1
    @juwens: You're welcome. I've added some supplementary material also. Feb 27, 2020 at 19:21
  • 1
    I’m totally with you there. Architecture and Design decision are always a tradeoff and neither the c# event pattern nor message bus pattern is better or worse.
    – juwens
    Feb 27, 2020 at 21:16

C# events were designed for user interfaces where the user interface needs to update in response to an action. If you are using the events in that context, they are "Good Enough". For example, the model adds a new Foo element to an ObservableList<Foo> property that is bound to an ItemTemplate based control. The front end code is already instrumented to listen for list change events, so it can create a new instance of the template for the Foo element. It works, the front-end code doesn't throw exceptions unless the template is broken.

If you need a true pub/sub concept then you either need an Event Bus or a Message Queue. Those are purpose designed for publish/subscribe. It's important to state here that EventBus and Message Queue are the wrong solution for the purpose that C# events were made for.

In short you have been thinking of the C# event incorrectly.

  • 1
    I concluded that they've implemented events for UI and hence their de facto behavior. And that i've learned that the hard way. But i've seen other people stumbling upon that too. And hence the question.
    – juwens
    Feb 27, 2020 at 17:32

Being asynchronous is not always better than being synchronous. You get a mean and lean direct implementation which suits the majority of desktop scenarios. If you need asynchronous behavior there is nothing stopping you from adding that as needed. There is also nothing stopping an object developer from handling exceptions thrown by a subscriber.

In a web context there is no choice and apparently that is what you grew up with as a developer and got used to. Not knowing whether your message was received feels rather awkward to a desktop developer. It all depends where you are coming from.

Note that in a typical desktop scenario you are the one to implement the handlers, regardless of who made the events available. So if something is screwed up, you can fix that yourself because you caused it and there is no issue. Furthermore, you do not need events to lock up your application or cause exceptions to be thrown.


In my code, exceptions are either acceptable (in which case execution should continue after any necessary cleanup within the caller and after a standard handling action is taken based on the type of acceptable exception) or unacceptable (in which case the program should crash and burn). In general, acceptable exceptions should not be propagated any further down the stack than necessary.

So, in that context ... in order to manage exceptions during events, what I did was write an extension method InvokeAndHandle that does the same thing as Invoke except that when it calls each of the subscribers it also handles all acceptable exceptions generated by that subscriber and continues on to the next subscriber.

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