I hear this term from time to time but haven't found any well defined precise technical definitions posted online. They all seem to use the notion as if the term scoped has been defined elsewhere.
I roughly understand it as logging which includes context identifiers that map to the stacktrace where the log records pair up in a balanced stack-like fashion--with enter and exit or start and finish entries as the stack drills down and unwinds across an application's execution.
Here's some fragments of the ideas
In C++, it’s useful to log not only when logging of a scope started, but also when it ended.
But scope as Microsoft has defined it in ILogger is actually to do with adding extra messaging onto a log entry. It’s somewhat metadata-ish, but it tends to lend itself more like a stacktrace from within a single method.