I have single page application with an Angular frontend and a Spring REST-backend.

What is the proper way to handle a list of string-based options in the fronted the enduser can select from, which shall all be shown and eventually slightly changes over time?

i.e. gender ('Male', 'Female', 'Unisex') or jobs ('Student', 'Teacher', 'Engineer', ...)

My approach:

  • Store the lists as a key-value pair, i.e. gender ('Male' 0, 'Female' 1, 'Unisex' 2) and jobs ('Student' 0, 'Teacher' 1, 'Engineer' 2, ...)
  • have an own GET-endpoint for every list (gender, jobs, ...) to fetch the key/value mapping
  • backend only stores the id, mapping from id to value will be done in the frontend with the fetched list


  • is there a best-practise for this?
  • should I use key/value pairs at all or just store the strings itself as they are presented in the frontend?
  • should I use a GET-endpoint to fetch the lists at all, or should I just hardcode them in the frontend?
  • maybe forget about all this and do it differently?

Thanks in advance!

4 Answers 4


I think that this is a more question on a project structure/set up and its maturity as:

  • The most effective way, if there are not more teams/too many people working on the project and the project is not too big, would be to have a single repository for both backend and frontend with a unified release cycle (both released at the same time). This way you can have these definitions (Schemas) in a shared file that becomes part of both (front-end and backend) builds. (example: https://github.com/kantega/react-and-spring)
  • If you have these separate and therefore a separate release cycle you have 2 options, both valid to me:
    • You may have an API endpoint that will retrieve this as you described. This is more dynamic but the form-rendering will require a requests to the backend.
    • Or you could publish these definitions (Schemas) during the backend build as an NPM package (or some statically hosted artifact) that would be then installed to the front-end bundle. In this case, you have better control over the versioning but you need to re-release the front-end after you upgrade the backend.

should I use key/value pairs at all or just store the strings itself as they are presented in the frontend?

If you store keys in the DB then I would go with key-value pairs.

should I use a GET-endpoint to fetch the lists at all, or should I just hardcode them in the frontend?

If you don't expect this to change in the near future or often you could even hard-code it with some warning in the code on both sides in order not to bring more complexity to the project until it's really needed.


should I use a GET-endpoint to fetch the lists at all, or should I just hardcode them in the frontend?

I would fetch the list and map on the frontend. Besides changes that can be easily accommodated in the future given you start with it also happened more than once that an Angular thing I was working on went from single language to multi language, and translations are easier to do like this.


is there a best-practise for this?

One of the main things to consider is the volatility of the data, i.e. how prone it is to change.

In decreasing order of volatility, solutions can range from:

  • Always fetching the values from the backend.
  • Fetching and caching the values on the page for future reference (more volatile => shorter cache expiry)
  • Fetching and caching the values on the browser's local storage for future reference between page loads
  • Hardcoding the enum values in your frontend

It should be noted that while this bullet point list is written in decreasing order of volatility, it is also written in increasing order of performance and efficiency.

You really need to balance your approach here because erring too much on either side is going to negatively impact your end result. Either you waste performance by doing too many calls to the backend, or you fail to respond to changes quickly enough by not doing enough calls to the backend.

In general, I would favor lowering the quickness of your response as much as you can get away with (without upsetting the customer). One thing we found out is that customers are happier if they might run into an outdated list once in a while (we gave them a manual refresh button to fix it); compared to always having a slight performance issue.

should I use a GET-endpoint to fetch the lists at all, or should I just hardcode them in the frontend?

Unless your data is highly volatile or you have a concrete need to avoid small redeploys, I would suggest that you consider hardcoding these values. Barring the two things I just mentioned, the benefits really outweigh the cost, by a (IMHO) large amount.

The first example I added below specifically addresses how to go about hardcoding them in the frontend.

Store the lists as a key-value pair, i.e. gender ('Male' 0, 'Female' 1, 'Unisex' 2) and jobs ('Student' 0, 'Teacher' 1, 'Engineer' 2, ...)

What you are describing here is an enum, and you might be better off working with enums instead of hand-crafted key-value pairs.

backend only stores the id, mapping from id to value will be done in the frontend with the fetched list

I would offer that for certain option lists, especially low-volatile ones like gender, both your frontend and backend should make use of an enum, not a magic number. More on this solution later.

have an own GET-endpoint for every list (gender, jobs, ...) to fetch the key/value mapping

Again, this depends on the volatility of the data. However, if you can assume that within a single page load the data is constant, and you're dealing with many small option lists, it might be better to merge the calls into one. This cuts down on the overhead performance cost of each individual network call.

I would, however, be inclined to expose both an individual endpoint and a combined endpoint. When you have one already, it's a negligible development cost to provide the other; but doing so gives the frontend the freedom to decide whether it wants to get everything or just some specific thing.

The rest of this answer lists a few ways I've seen this tackled. In all cases, it's a matter of tailoring your approach to your requirements.

1. Hardcoding the enum

I'm specifically focusing on your gender example here, as it's ripe for being cast into an enum type. Gender is not volatile enough to warrant a repeated interaction between back- and frontend. While you may expand the options at one point, it won't be frequent.

gender ('Male', 'Female', 'Unisex')

Hardcoding your options into an enum type may sound like it's a naive implementation which lacks flexibility compared to the other options, but there are some real worthwhile benefits to this.

  • Performance. No extra network calls needed.
  • If your frontend uses a typed language (e.g. TypeScript), having an enum allows for nicer syntax and dev support, compared to always having to work with a list of unknown string values.
    • I really want to stress there that there is a big impact on your code readability when moving from an enum (where you can explicitly reference its values) to a list of unknown values (where you are always working with abstract values and can never value match anything).
  • Presumably your backend will be making use of this same enum type. Depending on your backend language, you may be able to share the same enum declaration, ensuring that your back and frontend are always in sync with one another.

Even when the backend is written in a different ecosystem and cannot share the same enum declaration, it is possible to set up a template generation between the two.
I've used this with great success in the past. Whenever I'd rebuild my backend, my solution automatically built TypeScript services which consumed all my available API endpoints, and in the process also serialized all used types (models, enums, ...) which were used by the API (both input and output).
The end result here was that I never had to write any API-handling logic in my frontend. I'd make a PeopleController in my backend with specific endpoints, and then after building the solution, my frontend would already have a PeopleService (with an already implemented method for each endpoint) and a PeopleModel DTO ready to go.

The downside here is that you need to redeploy the application to update the enum. However, for low-volatility data, this is a negligible cost. If you are working in a CI/CD context, needing to deploy isn't a big hurdle to cross anyway.

2. Only fetching the difference

I once worked for a company who created the mobile apps that delivery drivers use to deliver parcels (you've probably had to put your signature in one of those apps).

This entailed a vast amount of configuration options. I'm not talking about the parcel data, but the application configuration data. One example here is that if a delivery could not be finished correctly, the delivery driver needed to log what was called an "incident", but he could only choose from a preset list of possible reasons. This list was frequently updated when new exceptional circumstances arose.

However, due to a lot of complex business logic revolving around the incident types, we didn't want to keep fetching the whole list over and over. It would be megabytes of data, for tens of thousands of devices all logging on at roughly the same time every day.

Due to the need to cut down mobile data usage as much as possible, and the fact that the devices needed to keep working if they lost connection, we inevitably had to store the data locally. Which inherently begs the question: when do we update this local cached data? How frequently? How much bandwidth will this cost?
When there was a network connection, once a day we would poll the backend, and ask it to send only the incident types that had been updated or created since [timestamp]. The value of [timestamp] was given by the device, i.e. the last time this synchronization happened. This ensured that e.g. a new device (who had never synced before, or had corrupted its cache) was able to get everything, without us needing to develop a second endpoint for this).

This takes a bit more effort to implement. You need to develop a custom endpoint, track all of your entities' create/update dates, handle special cases such as deletion, and the mobile app needs some custom logic to apply a partial update to its local storage. This was a non-negligible development cost.

However, it cut mobile data usage by 98.3% (across the entire backend, not just the incident types endpoint!). It was so very wasteful to load 100+ complex objects when likely only one or two had been added/changed since last time, that the company saved more on its mobile data cost than the development of the required logic.

This specific solution may be an overly involved solution for your particular problem, but it highlights that you really need to balance your desire for quick response to volatile data, and your desire for overall performance and network load.

  • Maybe you have ample bandwidth and would prefer to cut down on development costs.
  • Maybe you have limited bandwidth and would rather spend effort developing a more efficient solution
  • Maybe local performance is paramount, no matter the bandwidth or development cost (this is often the case for games).
  • Maybe you hate having to debug or otherwise deal with caching issues and would rather suffer a slight increase in bandwidth usage.
  • Maybe you want to cut costs across the board and your users having an outdated list once in a while is not big enough of an issue to spend time and effort on.
  • ...

The point being that you have to pick your poison: many network calls, or the possibility of outdated data, or the added development cost of avoiding the former two at the same time. Depending on your requirements and scenario, one poison might be easier to swallow than the others.


is there a best-practise for this?

The best practice is, usually, the one that fulfils your needs in the simplest way possible. You know, keep it simple, solve the problem first. This said, hardcoding both lists in the SPA (say, as @Injectable()) seems the most straightforward solution.

should I use key/value pairs at all or just store the strings themselves as they are presented in the front end?

It depends. Do you have to give support for multilanguage? Does your data store support multiple charsets? Collations? Are you going to do joins by strings in different languages? Yes? How? etc...

should I use a GET-endpoint to fetch the lists at all, or should I just hardcode them in the front end?

You are the only one who can answer this because you are the only one who knows how important gender and job list are?. Anyways, as said early, keep it simple. You can hardcode these values on the client side, then as needs appear, you can promote the management of both lists to the back end.

Note that, you can implement the endpoint in two different ways

  1. Fetching a list of genders/jobs from some master data repository (file, table, service, etc.)
  2. Fetching a list of different genders/jobs found in the system (no master data whatsoever)

Don't try to get the end solution in the first iteration. That will never happen, there will be (sooner or later) a reason to change and that's one of the reasons for us to make things as simplest as possible.

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