I will describe my problem with a very typical example, an e-commerce application.

Says we have to manage Products, and we have 2 bounded contexts Sales, and Warehouse that store the product information.

The Sales bounded context cares about price, product name, description.

The Warehouse bounded context cares about sizes, position, quantity, quality.

When we create a new product, we have to input all of the above information. Following the CQRS pattern, we have to send 2 commands Create Product to Sales and Warehouse bounded context, which could be 2 microservices.

The problem is, if the Product is created in Sales, but not valid to be created in Warehouse, or the command to Warehouse is not sent, then the Product in Sales does not make sense. The same goes with the reverse.

So how do you create an object, in this case, a product, that appears in multiple bounded contexts?

1 Answer 1


Product objects in two different bounded contexts should be usually seen as two different objects which share the same name "just by coincidence". Of course, this is not completely coincidentally, since both objects will be a representation of the same physical item, but those two Product classes can (and will) represent very different aspects of a real-world "product". This may go as far as storing products in the warehouse by their quantity (one Product object represents multiple real-world items, counted by quantity), and storing products in Sales in a 1:1 manner to their real-world pendant.

So in each bounded context, there is a creation process for its own Product objects, implemented in some kind of Product factory. These processes should be completely independent from the other bounded context.

Now let's assume, for example, there is a use case "Advertise Product" from Sales, which checks if the product is available in the warehouse, and only creates the sales-related Product object when there is still a corresponding product in the warehouse. Then in the context of this use case, the related Product factory from Sales has to query Warehouse whether there are products of the give type in stock (this query may utilize a tempory warehouse Product object, which should be created by the Sales independent creation process). If the query to Warehouse fails, "Advertise Product" won't deliver any saled Products.

Same could work the other way round: say there is a use case "reorder products" from Warehouse, and for determining the reorder quantity, Warehouse needs to ask Sales how many advance bookings for a certain product are already there. Then the creation process of "reorder products" will issue a query for the related products from Sales. In case there will be nothing returned, "reorder products" won't create any warehouse Products for reordering, or maybe just fewer ones.

So in short:

  • see Warehouse.Product and Sales.Product as different products, which can be created independently - hence the create commands should stay independent

  • there may be certain use cases which forbid independend creation of a product object on one context if it is not available in the other - if so, model and implement those use cases, for example, as a service, but don't try to stuff a whole use case implementation into a single creation command.

  • Base on your answer, I can see the Warehouse.Product and Sales.Product are different. The Product add to Sales goes into a catalog. The Product add to Warehouse is the physical product, if I get it right. When the user queries for the Sales.Product to buy, does the Sales have to check the Product in the Warehouse? If this happens, every query the Sales needs to update the information of Product in Warehouse. Is this true? Is there any better practice? Commented Dec 17, 2021 at 8:01
  • "The Product add to Warehouse is the physical product,"- no, both product objects are just a model, implemented in the bits and bytes of your computers. The physical product is what UPS delivers to your home.
    – Doc Brown
    Commented Dec 17, 2021 at 9:44
  • "When the user queries for the Sales.Product to buy, does the Sales have to check the Product in the Warehouse?" - maybe, that depends totally on how you design your system and your use cases, and how you distribute the information between different parts of the system. Amazon, for examples, can offer you products and prices on their web site even if those products are out of stock (and they show you that information before you buy anything). So in case there is a "Sales" and a "Warehouse" microservice behind that (which I don't know), ...
    – Doc Brown
    Commented Dec 17, 2021 at 9:48
  • .. I guess "Sales" would have to query "Warehouse" for this kind of use case, that's quite normal. But that does not imply that every query for a product in "Sales" would require also a query to "Warehouse", I have no idea why you come to this conclusion.
    – Doc Brown
    Commented Dec 17, 2021 at 9:50

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