I am having difficulty understanding how denormalization results in more storage necessary.
For example, let's say that in a normalized relation, there's Table 1 and Table 2. In order to join Table 1 and Table 2, I need another table Table 3 that maps Table 1's primary key to Table 2's primary key.
In a denormalized relation, I just include Table 2's primary key in Table 1 and no longer need Table 3. However, how does this require more storage? Instead of storing Table 2's primary key in Table 3, I just stored it in Table 1. And it should result in less storage, since Table 3 also included Table 1's primary key as its primary key.