What exactly is the purpose of React JS? I've heard a few things, like:

  • It updates the page without refreshing.
  • It is modular and can reduce redundant coding.
  • It is faster than updating the DOM object with JS.

The only one I can probably agree with is the last one. I don't understand why React JS is so important for the first two. For updating the page without refreshing, can't we just use AJAX? And for redudant code, say I needed to add a navigation bar in multiple pages, can't I just put something like:

<li> <a href = "homepage.php"> Home Page </a> </li>
<li> <a href = "aboutus.php"> About Us </a> </li>

And then link it wherever we need it with:

<?php include 'documentabove.php' ?>

I can build things with it, but can't wrap my head around why it seems like they made another language just for the sake of it.

Additionally, I would like to say I am sorry if this question does not belong here. I didn't feel like it belongs on stack overflow and am unsure of where to post it exactly.

  • Did you read the getting started guide of react? Or any other tutorial on react?
    – marstato
    May 15 at 20:43
  • @marstato I've completed the FCC course over react, and am soon going to build an application with it. Still don't understand why it's easier though, but this was recommended to me. May 15 at 20:57
  • @DocBrown I agree. I am editing it, good catch. May 15 at 21:29

2 Answers 2


React competes with Vanilla Javascript, not with server-side functionality¹.

Example scenario

Consider a simple interactive web application consisting of a slider. When we move the slider, we want some HTML element to move around automatically. This means that we have to find the relevant nodes in the DOM and set up an event listener and update the DOM whenever the state changes:

<div class=container>
  <div class=row>
  Move me: <input id=slider type=range min=0 max=100>

  <div class=row>
  <div id=text>drag the slider to move me</div>
const slider = document.getElementById("slider");
const text = document.getElementById("text");
slider.addEventListener('input', ev => text.style.left = `${ev.target.value}vw`);

(live jsfiddle)

This works fine for this simple example, but really doesn't scale well. As multiple interactive elements are added to a page, it's difficult to keep all of the data flows clear and straightforward, without any name clashes and so on.

Reactive user interfaces

Approaches to tame the complexity of GUIs are older than the web, for example with the Model–View–Controller pattern.

What React and similar frontend frameworks like Vue do is to provide a path to tackle this complexity, hiding all the tricky bits. The general idea is that

  • the application has some current state,
  • the DOM should always be a reflection of the current state, and
  • to change the DOM, you change the current state instead.

This is reactive programming, because the output (DOM) always updates itself when its inputs/dependencies (the state) are changed.

This means the programmer does not have to think about all of the DOM × DOM data flows, but can concentrate on managing the state and how to render the state in the current DOM.

A naive implementation of this approach would re-render the entire page/component whenever any part of the state changes:

<div class=container>
  <div class=row>
  Move me: <input id=slider type=range min=0 max=100>

  <div id=app class=row>
const app = document.getElementById("app");
const slider = document.getElementById("slider");

const renderSlidingText = (pos) => app.innerHTML = `
  <div id=text style="left: ${pos}vw">
    drag the slider to move me

slider.addEventListener('input', ev => renderSlidingText(ev.target.value));

renderSlidingText(slider.value) // render initial state

(live jsfiddle)

That works mostly fine for this small example, but replacing larger parts of the DOM would degrade performance noticeably (layouting the page is expensive for the browser). So what these frameworks do is to avoid using Element.innerHTML, instead parse the template themselves, and then compare the desired DOM with the current DOM to apply more surgical updates. For example, React would likely see here only the CSS style property needs to be updated, without having to replace the entire element.

User interface components

On top of helping with reactive programming and efficient DOM updates, these libraries also provide ways to build reusable components. For example, the following React example uses a <SlidingText> component:

<div id=app />
const App = () => {
  const [pos, setPos] = React.useState(50);
  return (
    <div className="container">
      <div className="row">
         type="range" min="0" max="100" value={ pos }
         onInput={ (ev) => setPos(ev.target.value) }

      <div className="row">
        <SlidingText pos={ pos } />

const SlidingText = ({ pos }) => (
  <div className="text" style={ {left: `${props.pos}vw` } }>
    drag the slider to move me

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.getElementById("app"));
root.render(<App />);

(live jsfiddle)

Of course, vanilla JS also supports Web Components, but defining them is a bit more effort than a simple function.

Updating the DOM with new data

You do mention Ajax requests to load new content into the current page, but unless you directly load HTML and use the Element.innerHTML approach you're going to have to manipulate the DOM somehow. For example, assume our backend gives us a list of strings ["a", "b", "c"].

With vanilla JavaScript we'd have to resort to some serious contortions like

<ul id=data>
const list = document.getElementById("data");

const renderData = (data) => {
  list.innerHTML = ''; // delete old contents
  for (const item of data) {
    const li = document.createElement("li");
    li.innerText = item;

But with React, we can just declaratively map the data to a desired DOM:

const List = ({ data }) => (
    { data.map(item => <li>{ item }</li>) }

And if we give each list item a unique key, then React's merging/reconciliation algorithm can handle subsequent updates of the input list more efficiently, without having to rewrite the entire list's DOM when elements are inserted/deleted.


Is all this extra effort worth it? Not for simple examples like a single slider. But React-style state management and rendering gets quite desirable for single-page applications, highly dynamic frontends, or when you want multiple instances of the same interactive component.

Of course, not every website is highly interactive. In a lot of cases, rendering templates on the backend is perfectly fine. Replacing partial content with Element.innerHTML is totally OK for a lot of use cases. For example, dynamically loading HTML fragments is quite popular and successful in the Rails community with frameworks like Turbolinks/Turbo/Hotwire. For example, the GitHub web interface uses this approach for its major navigation.

¹ though React is sometimes used for server-side rendering, a use case that competes with traditional template engines.


React, Vue, Angular etc provide a MVC style UI framework which HTML + JS doesn't have.

I guess the benefits are that by using the framework you get a whole load of common functionality that you would otherwise have to write from scratch. That basic binding of javascript variables to HTML elements so that when the data changes the DOM changes.

Granted if you have a very simple site you might feel that you don't need that functionality, or that its done in too complex a way, But websites these days are basically becoming desktop applications.

You might say that a static page with no javascript at all is fine for most things, But would you try to write google docs without some sort of UI framework? What about even the editable textbox on this site?

Once you've written it are you never going to reuse its basic functions in some other component or site? As you program you will build up a "framework" of code that you reuse for all your sites. React etc are the frameworks other poeple have written already.

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