This kind of person is called a hacker, and it's usually not a complimentary term from the more professional among us.
As you've noticed, the time saved in design, organisation and control is lost in debugging. And often in finding which release of code was the one that was actually shipped. If you can find it at all!
I find this kind of person is too wrapped up in themselves, think they're too good to work with the 'limitations' others have to suffer and so don't bother with them, and that loses even more time as the rest of the team has to clean up after them. They are also not too involved in the bug-fixing process (that's a maintenance developer's task, well beneath the 'l33t coder's skills and talent).
So, it might be a common approach elsewhere, but at my place (and I'm a senior coder who has tendencies to this approach, ahem) we do not suffer it. It's not that we demand a ton of processes and procedures, but we do insist on a minimal amount of organisation, source code control (which to be honest is bloody east and damn useful!)
Kent Beck et al, are all professionals who saw the old process-laden ways were bad in themselves, so they created new methodologies to organise coding while still keeping it more craft-oriented, and then told everyone else about it - by publishing books (how else did you do it back then before the Internet?)
You sound like you have it right - do not accept poor practice just because someone else can't hack it. Your team lead or manager should be coming down hard on this 'rockstar', but if they're not.. well, that still doesn't prevent you from doing the right thing. Just do not accept shoddy practice from her, if she screws up (and she will!) then let her clean it up. You stick to good practices (and you know what they are) without letting them take over to the detriment of your coding productivity, and you'll be good for the future.
Here's an essay from a truly insightful writer. It doesn't fix your problem, but it does give you a few insights into why it's like it is and maybe a few tips to deal with it professionally.