Currently we have a Development server on which we write the HTML/CSS/JS code. We do not optimize our code using compressors/minifiers. So our deployment process from Development to Production is simply to copy the files on the Development server to the Production server.

But now we are planning to use compressors/minifiers. We are confused about the process we should follow. Currently we use a single JS file called common.js and a single CSS file called common.css. Also now we are planning to use multiple CSS files in Dev like reset.css, common.css, etc. and when deploying them to production we will be combining them to a single CSS file.

The simplest process I can think of is:

  1. Make an exact copy of the development files on the Development server. Use the copy in the further steps.
  2. Combine all CSS files to a single CSS file say common.css. Same with JS files. Delete the other files for example reset.css.
  3. Compress/minify common.css and common.js to common.min.css and common.min.js. Delete common.css and common.js.
  4. In all the HTML files remove all link tags and script tags except for common.css and common.js
  5. In all the HTML files modify the script src and link href from common.js to common.min.js and common.css to common.min.css.
  6. Copy all the files to Production server.
  7. Delete the copy

This looks too tedious for us. What can be a better process? Is there any tool which can do the optimization (above steps) automatically. It looks like it would not be very difficult to write a script which performs all of the above steps. But I would like to use an existing tool rather than developing one myself. I would like to put the efforts only if such a tool does not exist.

Also when is the testing generally performed? I think it should be performed on the optimized files (just in case the compressors have some bug). But then the process would become more tedious as the above process would have to be repeated after every Test-Bugfix cycle.

  • Just use something like Ant to automate the build compress process and set up a deploy script.
    – Raynos
    Commented Jul 11, 2011 at 3:24

4 Answers 4


I worked on a project which were very close to your situation. The requirements were the following:

  1. On development side, each page can have one or several JavaScript files and one or several CSS files. All those files are local.
  2. In production, there must be one and one only JavaScript file and one and one only CSS file. Those two files are hosted on a distant server, optimized for static files and configured for client and server side caching.
  3. Each page has a link to JQuery hosted at Google CDN in both development and production environments.
  4. The deployment process must be automated.
  5. The deployment process must not modify files other than JavaScript and CSS files for compression.
  6. The website is written in ASP.NET.
  7. Every page of the website uses the same CSS and the same JavaScript.
  8. On development side, CSS and JavaScript files are always in a specific predefined directory.

Here what was done by my colleague who worked on this part of the project.

  1. All files except JQuery are minified and combined into two files: g.css and g.js, g for global. This is simply done by walking though the specific directory and searching for those files. After minifying them, the two files are send to the static content server, if they were changed since the last deployment.
  2. The process is executed at every build, since we couldn't find how to execute it at deployment only. It doesn't matter, after all, since it takes a few milliseconds to walk through all files and check if they were modified since the last build.
  3. The website is deployed as is, except the original JavaScript and CSS files. We don't need them in production.
  4. The masterpage (in ASP.NET) contains a specific method which is adjusting the calls to the JavaScript and CSS files depending of the context.

This method is like this:

public string MakeCssCalls(IList<string> cssFiles)
    // ...

In development environment, it returned the links to CSS files inside the cssFiles argument. In production, it ignored this argument and just returned "<link rel="stylesheet" href="http://static.example.com/g.css" type="text/css" />". It made the difference between production and development by comparing the machine name to the list of names in Web.config file: some machines were configured as being development machines; all machines outside this list were assumed production servers.

Performance-wise, it would be smarter to have a different Web.config file for production, indicating that we are actually in production (and, for example, precising the exact link to the static server with those files; in our case it was hardcoded, and that sucks). We couldn't do it this way because one of the requirements of this project was to have a single Web.config file for all environments, but if you can, do it.

Also when is the testing generally performed? I think it should be performed on the optimized files (just in case the compressors have some bug).

We tested the website on non-minified versions of files. We never had any bug coming from Google Closure (nor our home-made crappy CSS minifier).


If you're running on Apache, then a great solution (in my experience) is mod_pagespeed. It's an Apache plugin which automatically analyses your page and minifies, inlines and compresses your CSS/JS files and images. It also ensures you've got appropriate Cache-Control headers and it even supports parallel-izing downloads (if you set up multiple hostnames to point to your server).

Basically, it does much of the "hard" work for you automatically.

Of course, the downside is that it does put a little extra CPU load on your server (since it's got to analyze/re-write all that HTML), but in my experience most web servers are not CPU-bound and so this is acceptable.

  • Worth taking a look for our PHP sites. But we also use IIS for ASP sites.
    – Cracker
    Commented Jul 10, 2011 at 10:59

Tools like YUI Compressor and JSB2/JSB3 can be used with ant to get your process running in one step without much setup.


Just work with compressed version in dev...

I've come up against this problem as well, currently I just work in development with the minified versions. Its actually not that difficult, you can as always pull out the "non-minified" version from source control if you need to make major changes.

CSS in minified state is still very editable. also I tend to "un-minify" just the block of css I'm working on. then once I'm happy I just minify it again.

This avoids any extra steps/depending on scripts etc.

  • Are you really working with minified JavaScript too? I hope not! Must be actually funny to do it, and to try to remember what every meaningless a, b ... aa, etc. variable does, without being authorized to add comments to source code. Commented Jul 10, 2011 at 12:50
  • no, I have js source which is of course not minified. I make changes to the source. when the changes are done, I minify it and work in dev with this minified js.
    – Darknight
    Commented Jul 10, 2011 at 13:08
  • 2
    -1 How are you supposed to debug a minified file?
    – pllee
    Commented Jul 10, 2011 at 20:52
  • using chrome, firebug, have of you not heard/used these?
    – Darknight
    Commented Jul 11, 2011 at 0:43
  • 1
    I don't understand why the answer is downvoted. Of course, the answer covers only a small part of a question and only applies to CSS, but for this part, is gives a perfectly valid suggestion: working with partially-minified CSS is a good start if the developers agree to do it and there are no style guidelines against it. Commented Jul 11, 2011 at 3:31

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