You really need to go back to the origins - find some history of Niklaus Wirth. Pascal started its life as a teaching language. "Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs" is a good starting point.
At the time, Pascal was far simpler than Algol 68 and PL/1. It forced structure and declaration, and strong type safety, unlike Fortran4 (Fortran 77 improved things a bit there but you could still play terribly fast-n-loose). And compared to COBOL it was short, simple and easier to write programs. (Hello world in about 6 lines instead of 600).
When it originated, there were things like character arrays in Pascal - that was it for string handling. Things improved over the years.
If you really want to delve into a Pascal history, some points you must take into account:
- Wirth's original (Standard Pascal)
- extensions by Digital Equipment Corp (DEC) on the Vax
- the UCSD p-System (on many machines but notably the Apple-2)
- Turbo Pascal
- Apollo Domain Pascal (used to write the Domain/OS operating system, also called Aegis)
- Turbo Pascal with objects and units (ver 5.5 and later. Edit: just found the TP 5.5 OOP PDF)
Back in the 1980s there was a huge slug-fest between Pascal and C. There was a vast amount of development and activity happening in both camps.
As a consequence, weird and wonderful things like Bliss-32, Algol, and PL/1 have pretty much disappeared - but ideas from these made their way into Pascal.
EDIT: character arrays could be packed which conferred some special properties, but if you wanted what we now know as string handling you needed to grow it yourself.
Apps, which is just a new flavour of client-server).